A Cultural History of the Modern Age, Volume 1 by Egon Friedell

By Egon Friedell

Cultural background of the fashionable Age: Renaissance and Reformation

Historian, thinker, critic, playwright, journalist, and actor, Egon Friedell used to be a key determine within the notable flowering of Viennese tradition among the 2 global wars. His masterpiece, A Cultural background of the fashionable Age, demonstrates the highbrow universality that Friedell observed as guarantor of the continuity and regeneration of eu civilization.

Following an excellent establishing essay on cultural historical past and why it's going to be studied, the 1st quantity starts off with an research of the transformation of the Medieval brain because it developed from the Black loss of life to the Thirty Years warfare. The emphasis is at the religious and cultural vortex of civilization, yet Friedell by no means forgets the eu roots in pestilence, demise, and superstition that animate a opposite force towards cause, refinement, highbrow interest, and clinical wisdom. whereas those values reached their apogee in the course of the Renaissance, Friedell indicates that every cultural victory is precarious, and Europe was once continuously at risk of slipping again into barbarism. Friedell's historic imaginative and prescient embraces the entire of Western tradition and its improvement. it's a constant probing for the divine within the world's path and is, hence, theology; it's study into the elemental forces of the human soul and is, consequently, psychology; it's the so much illuminating presentation of the different types of kingdom and society and, consequently, is politics; the main diversified selection of all art-creations and is, for that reason, aesthetics.

Thomas Mann looked Friedell as one of many nice stylists within the German language. just like the works of the nice novelist, A Cultural background of the trendy Age bargains a dramatic background of the final six centuries, exhibiting the using forces of every age. the hot advent presents a desirable biographical cartoon of Friedell and his cultural milieu and analyzes his position in highbrow heritage.

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In 1936, he was transferred to Geneva as a delegate in the disarmament division of the Secretariat of the League of Nations. Two years later, Field was sent to Spain with a League of Nations committee to oversee the repatriation of foreign participants in the civil war. Disillusioned with the league because of its inability to prevent the defeat of the Spanish republic and the aggression of Hitler, he resigned in 1940, ending his career in the service of the United States government. At the end of 1940, Noel and Herta Field took over joint direction of the Marseilles office of the Unitarian Service Committee (USC) and two years later, after the Germans had occupied Vichy, France, he became the USC's European director with an office in Geneva, Switzerland.

On February 10, Stalin summoned the top Yugoslav and Bulgarian leaders to Moscow. Tito prudently remained at home and sent Kardelj and Djilas, but Dimitrov could not avoid attending in person. Stalin and Molotov attacked him sharply for planning a customs union with Romania and for not consulting the Soviet leaders beforehand and ordered him to halt immediately all plans for an East European federation. Stalin despised Dimitrov, but feared Tito. Suddenly, he instructed Yugoslavia and Bulgaria to unite without delay—a plan he had hitherto opposed, but now thought advisable in order to dilute Tito's strength and prestige.

The most striking difference, however, was Kostov's retraction of his "confession" during his trial. "Citizen Judges! I plead guilty to having had an incorrect attitude toward the Soviet Union, expressed in the methods of bargaining I employed in our commercial dealings with the USSR, by concealing certain prices arranged with the capitalist countries, and by applying the State Secret Laws to Soviet representatives. . These make me guilty of a nationalist deviation which merits a severe punishment," he began his testimony.

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