By P Emmer, O Petre-Grenouilleau, Jessica Roitman
The results of the growth of Europe have interested historians and economists, in addition to the general public at huge, for hundreds of years. probably the most fascinating and debatable results of Europe's growth has been the alternate that resulted from this circulation out of Europe and into different areas of the realm. The function of international alternate in Europe's financial progress and particularly in its industrialization has lengthy been hotly contested. This quantity has as its element of departure the concept the hyperlink among colonial exchange and the improvement of Europe used to be even more complicated than hitherto believed. simply because this hyperlink is so complicated, this quantity comprises essays by way of numerous experts to evaluate the recent instructions within the historiography. furthermore, this quantity examines the talk at the effect of colonial alternate on international locations corresponding to Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden, that are often missed in desire of dialogue approximately Britain.
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Extra resources for A Deus Ex Machina Revisited: Atlantic Colonial Trade and European Economic Development
The wealth derived from the area depended on the work of an extravagant number of slaves (in 1789 there were over 400,000 in Saint-Domingue). Their number had increased greatly during the previous 20 years and, because of a high mortality rate, they had to be replaced frequently. In exchange for these new slaves, as well as for the supplies they received from the home country, the planters traded their products. The islands’ economy was occasionally shaken by various problems—crops were aﬀected by adverse environmental changes, and trade was aﬀected by war.
Their re-exportation throughout Europe at the end of the absolute monarchy, reached the value of 150 million livres tournois, which represented 40% of France’s total exports. Clearly then, the West Indies and Saint-Domingue must be viewed as an important asset for the nation. 5 The theoretical possession of immense territories in America by the Spanish and the Portuguese did not necessarily mean eﬀective occupation. 30 part i – chapter two But let us look more closely at this asset. The wealth derived from the area depended on the work of an extravagant number of slaves (in 1789 there were over 400,000 in Saint-Domingue).
Even the Dutch, from the United Provinces to the East Indies, had some diﬃculties in supplanting their Lusitanian rivals and controlling the seas and the trade they had entered into. They often had to defer to the dictates of the regional powers such as China and Japan. Furthermore, they suﬀered a serious setback in Formosa. The occupation of Brazil ended in a nonrenewal of the privileges of the West India Company. Then the English colonies were developed in a completely diﬀerent manner than were most of the Iberian and/or Dutch colonies.