By C. Paul Vincent
The failure of Germany's first republic after global struggle I has aroused numerous many years of targeted learn. Synthesizing a lot of that examine, this old dictionary will improve an figuring out of the Weimar Republic. It contains entries on contributors as various as Bertolt Brecht, Adolf Hitler, the physicist Lise Meitner, and the movie director Georg W. Pabst. There also are entries defining such occasions because the Beerhall Putsch and the French career of the Ruhr; quite a few organisations and associations, similar to the Frankfurt tuition; the complicated array of political events; and treaties and agreements, reminiscent of the Locarno Treaties of 1925 and the 1929 younger Plan.
Arranged as an A to Z reference resource for the research of recent German historical past, the dictionary supplies substance to cultural phrases (such as Dada), to movie and song, and to ideas, reminiscent of Anti-Semitism and Justice, deemed very important to an realizing of the interval. All entries finish with bibliographic references.
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Extra info for A historical dictionary of germany's weimar republic, 1918-1933
Between January and November 1919 members of the Supreme Command were fixated on the Baltic provinces. In February, after orchestrating a British invitation to protect the new Baltic governments from the Red Army, Ru¨diger von der Goltz* assembled a force known as the Baltic Volunteers. The aim of this Freikorps* detachment was control of Baltikum. For centuries the Baltic region had evoked romantic fascination in Germans. Although Courland and Livonia, roughly today’s Latvia and Estonia, had been under Russian rule since the eighteenth century, they were German in culture.
The Weimar era brought him numerous accolades: appointment in 1919 to the Berlin Academy of Arts; receipt in 1924 of the Kleist Prize for Literature; Honorary Membership in the Munich Arts Academy in 1925; and the award in 1933, upon recommendations from Max Liebermann* and Ka¨the Kollwitz,* of the Pour le Me´rite (Peace Class). With Kollwitz and Gerhard Marcks,* he was among Germany’s premier sculptors. A spiritual man who claimed his greatest satisfaction when working in wood, he emulated the medieval masters by completing his illustrations as woodcuts.
Astutely aware of the arts (he was a devotee of Bertolt Brecht*), he claimed that the impact of film* and mass reproduction would forever change aesthetics. Benjamin grasped his vulnerability in 1933 and emigrated to France. Attempting to escape in 1940, he feared capture by the Gestapo and committed suicide near the Spanish border. REFERENCES: Arendt, ‘‘Introduction’’; Benz and Graml, Biographisches Lexikon; David Gross, ‘‘Kultur’’; Laqueur, Weimar; Lunn, Marxism and Modernism. BENN, GOTTFRIED (1886–1956), writer; his work combined elements of Expressionism* with a disturbing realism.