By Evert W. Beth (Eds.)
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Extra resources for A Study in the Philosophy of Science
Do you know your father? B. Yes! A. How is that possible? ' - what will be your answer? B. That I don't know him, of course! A. But now that man happens to be your father! So, if you don't know that man, it is clear you don't know your own father. o,): it is known that Aristotle frequently uses such words when he makes an appeal to self-evidence. I previously construed the argument as an objection to Aristotle's evidence postulate (ct. Chapter 2), but at present I feel that a more specific issue is at stake, namely, the Problem of Universals.
Which enabled us to express numerical identity and numerical distinctness. Then all that can be said is expressed by: (Ex)[a(x) & b(x)] (II) It will be clear that the operation, described under (i), is a formal counterpart of Aristotle's mathematical abstraction, whereas the operation, described under (ij), is analogous to his ontological abstraction. w) It seems to follow that there might indeed be some connection between Aristotle's views on abstraction and on the ontological status of universals and his syllogistics; but this is a matter which awaits further investigation.
By this knowledge of the principles, man is initiated into the mysteries of life, and he acquires intellectual immortality; he becomes inaccessible to wonder, which is considered as intellectual death. Therefore, according to Plato and Aristotle, man must be thrown into perplexity, in order to become capable of the intuitive vision of the principles, just as in the ancient mysteries he must suffer ritual death in order to rise to eternal life. 7) For this reason Chrysippus, in contradiction to his predecessors, Zeno and Cleanthes, said that only the souls of the wise can survive the periodic world fire.