Amino acids : biochemistry and nutrition by Guoyao Wu

By Guoyao Wu

Content material: Discovery and Chemistry of Amino Acids Definition and Nomenclature of AA Discovery of AA Chemical homes of AA Protein Digestion and Absorption of Peptides and Amino Acids category and content material of Protein in Diets Definitions of Digestion and Absorption Protein Digestion and Absorption of Peptides and AA in Monogastric Animals Protein Digestion and Absorption of Peptides and AA in Ruminants Synthesis of Amino Acids Synthesis of AA in Tissues and Cells of Animals together with people basic Pathways for Synthesis of AA in Animal Cells particular Pathways for Synthesis of AA in Animal Cells Pathways for Synthesis of AA in Microorganisms Synthesis of D-AA in Animal Cells and micro organism Conversion of D-AA to l-AA in Animal Cells and micro organism Degradation of Amino Acids common features of AA Degradation in Animal Cells Pathways for Degradation of AA in Animal Cells Catabolism of D-AA in Animal Cells Catabolism of L-AA and D-AA in Microorganisms Synthesis and Catabolism of unique Nitrogenous elements from Amino Acids construction of Dipeptides such as Histidine or Its Methylated Derivatives Synthesis and Degradation of GSH construction of Gly-Pro-Hydroxyproline Synthesis and Catabolism of Polyamines Synthesis and usage of Creatine Synthesis and Catabolism of L-Carnitine Synthesis and Catabolism of Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotides Heme Synthesis and Catabolism Synthesis and Catabolism of Histamine Synthesis and Catabolism of Catecholamines, Thyroid Hormones, and Melanin Synthesis and Catabolism of Serotonin and Melatonin Synthesis and Catabolism of D-Glucosamine and Glycosaminoglycans Conjugation items for Excretion Synthesis of Urea and Uric Acid Ammonia creation and Toxicity in Animals Urea construction in Mammals Uric Acid Synthesis Comparisons among Uric Acid and Urea Synthesis Use of Isotopes for learning Amino Acid Metabolism easy ideas approximately Isotopes Interpretation of knowledge from Isotope Experiments strength Pitfalls of Isotopic reports Protein Synthesis historic views of Protein Synthesis Pathway Pathways of Protein Synthesis within the Cytoplasm and Mitochondria Biochemical features and importance of Protein Synthesis Measurements of Protein Synthesis Intracellular Protein Degradation historic views of Intracellular Protein Degradation Proteases (Peptidases) for Intracellular Protein Degradation Intracellular Proteolytic Pathways features and Physiological importance of Intracellular Protein Degradation Measurements of Intracellular Protein Degradation law of Amino Acid Metabolism uncomplicated innovations in Metabolism results of dietary and Physiological elements on AA Metabolism Physiological services of Amino Acids Roles of AA in Peptide Synthesis Roles of AA for Synthesis of Nonpeptide Molecules Regulatory Roles of AA in foodstuff consumption, Nutrient Metabolism, and Gene Expression Roles for AA within the Immune reaction Use of AA in food, treatment, and wellbeing and fitness Efficacy and safeguard of nutritional AA Supplementation Inborn error of Amino Acid Metabolism Inherited illnesses due to problems of AA Metabolism remedy of Inborn error of AA Metabolism nutritional requisites of Amino Acids ancient views of nutritional AA necessities decision of AA standards review of nutritional Protein caliber Index

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Overall, only the N atom of this pigment arises from α-AA.

In addition, d-glutamate has also been reported in chicken and pigeon tissues. d-Alanine is not synthesized in mammalian cells due to the lack of d-alanine racemase. However, insects and certain aquatic animals possess this enzyme for d-alanine formation. Because of the synthesis by gastrointestinal microorganisms and the possible intake from the plant-based rodent diet, d-alanine is present in the rat pancreas, as well as in the mouse brain and the peripheral tissues. Furthermore, a relatively large amount of d-alanine is found in the urine of mice, which is primarily bacterial, but not dietary origin.

The structures of cystine and cysteine were established by chemical synthesis in 1903–1904. l-Glutamate (α-aminoglutaric acid) was first isolated by H. Ritthausen from wheat gluten (gliadin) hydrolysate in 1866. Seven years later, H. Hlasiwetz and J. Habermann obtained glutamate from casein, the first protein of animal origin shown to contain this AA. Glutamate was synthesized chemically from levulinic acid by L. Wolff in 1890. Monosodium glutamate (l-glutamic acid in the form of its monosodium salt) was discovered by K.

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