By A. G. Fishburn
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Thick mucilages, medicated with drugs such as ichthammol or resorcinol, can be used as drying or filmforming applications to the skin. If aqueous tragacanth formulations are to be stored for appreciable periods and do not contain a drug with antimicrobial action, a preservative should be included. P. Starch for pharmaceutical use may be obtained from wheat, maize (corn), rice or potatoes. In addition to its use as a waterabsorbent diluent for dusting powders, advantage may be taken of its property of gelatinizing with hot water to produce a mucilage or jelly.
Injections require a very high grade of pyrogen-free gelatin made from the collagen of selected beef-bones. P. permits up to 0*1 per cent of sulphur dioxide in gelatin itself. ), gelatin can be used as a haemostatic. P. distinguishes two grades of gelatin, known as Type A (iso-electric point between pH 7 and 9) and Type B (iso-electric point between pH 4*7 and 5). Type A is incompatible with anionic emulsifiers and Type B with cationic. P. also imposes a maximum bacterial count (10,000 per gram), and controls viscosity by requiring a 1 per cent aqueous solution to form a gel which is non-pourable at 0°C.
58 AN INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION This has both ester and ether linkages and resembles cetomacrogol in physical properties. The main members of the ester group are the fatty acid esters of sorbitan (sorbitol anhydride). OH These are best known under the trade names of "Spans" or "Crills"; they are oil-soluble and favour w/o emulsions. If the unesterified secondary alcohol groups are further reacted with ethylene oxide, the hydrophilic component is increased by ethylene oxide chains.