By Manfred F. Boemeke, Roger Chickering, Stig Förster
The essays in looking ahead to overall conflict discover the discourse on battle in Germany and the us among 1871 and 1914. the idea that of "total warfare" offers the analytical concentration. The essays demonstrate lively discussions of conflict in numerous boards between infantrymen, statesmen, women’s teams, and educators on either side of the Atlantic. Predictions of lengthy, cataclysmic wars weren't unusual in those discussions, whereas the involvement of German and American infantrymen in colonial battle steered that destiny strive against wouldn't spare civilians. regardless of those "anticipations of overall war," nearly not anyone discovered the sensible implications in making plans for battle within the early 20th century.
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Extra info for Anticipating Total War: The German and American Experiences, 1871-1914
Kennedy, "British and German Reactions to the Rise of American Power," in R. J. Bullen, H. Pogge von Strandmann, and A. B. , Ideas into Politics: Aspects of European History, 1880-1950 (London, 1984), 15-24; and for brief surveys on the literature, see Reiner Pommerin, Der Kaiser und Amerika, 15-22, and Ragnhild Fiebig-von Hase, Lateinamerika als Konfliktherd der deutsch-amerikanischen Beziehungen, 1890-1903: Vom Beginn der Panamerikapolitik bis zur Venezuelakrise von 1902-1903 (Gottingen, 1986), pt.
15 Most pertinent for the origins of World War I is Fritz Fischer, Griff nach der Weltmacht: Die Kriegszielpolitik des kaiserlichen Deutschland 1914/18 (Diisseldorf, 1961). This detailed study started the so-called Kriegsschuldkontroverse, or Fischer Controversy, and a steady stream of revisionist writings. For the intricacies of the debate, the various participants, and the relevant publications, see John A. Moses, The Politics of Illusion: The Fischer Controversy in German Historiography (London, 1975).
Moreover, the lack of civil control over the military was perpetuated when the German Reich was founded. The Prussian military leadership retained its constitutionally privileged position and remained directly answerable only to the Prussian king and then the German kaiser. 31 There also is abundant evidence demonstrating the widespread admiration, even emulation, of the 27 See Combs, American Diplomatic History, chap. 2 1 . 28 See Friedhelm Griitzner, Die Politik Bismarcks von 1862 bis 1871 in der deutschen Geschichtsschreibung: Eine kritische historiographische Betrachtung (Frankfurt am Main, 1986); Hagen Schulze, The Course of German Nationalism: From Frederick the Great to Bismarck, 1763-1867 (New York, 1985); and, most recently, Hagen Schulze, Staat und Nation in der europdischen Geschichte (Munich, 1995), chaps.