Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical by E E Ludwig

By E E Ludwig

Quantity II is a part of a 3 quantity set. quantity 1 covers subject matters from 1-7. This quantity covers: eight. Distillation; nine. Packed Towers.

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Rp. may double the number of trays. The exact procedure is to estimate a temperature profile from top to bottom of the column and then calculate a for each theoretical tray or stage by assuming a temperature increment from tray to tray. For many systems this, or some variation, is recommended to achieve good separation calculations. 8. 3 stages or 16%. For ideal systems following Raoult’s Law;relative volatility alh = pI/ph, ratio of partial pressures. For a binary distillation, a is calculated at top and bottom conditions and a geometric mean used where the differences are relatively small.

This topic is essential to the efficient design of a distillation system. xi+- XF 1-q (8 - 28) Total Reflux, Minimum Plates Total reflux exists in a distillation column, whether a binary or multicomponent system, when all the overhead vapor from the top tray or stage is condensed and returned to the top tray. Usually a column is brought to equilibrium at total reflux for test or for a temporary plant condition which requires discontinuing feed. Rather than shut down, drain and then re-establish operating conditions later, it is usually more convenient and requires less Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants 22 energy in the form of reboiler heat and condenser coolant to maintain a total reflux condition with no feed, no overhead and no bottoms products or withdrawals.

9 By assuming values of xl, the corresponding y1 may be calculated. 4 9 Using the vapor pressure data for benzene and toluene [59]: 1. Construct a boiling point diagram at a total pressure of 760 mm Hg, Figure 8-18. 2. From the boiling point diagram construct the equilibrium x-y curve for a total pressure of 760 mm Hg, Figure 8-19. 9 Mol FRACTION BENZENE IN LIQUID, xB Figure 8-19. X-y diagram for benzene in benzene-toluene mixture at 760 mm Hg total pressure, Example 8-5. 5 Vapor PressureBenzene.

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