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Thus, one can speculate that the vesicles in the growth cone may represent some inductive substance destined for the perikaryon or for release at another terminal. The role of trophic stimuli in the induction of neuronal differentiation is discussed in Section III, C. 40 MARTIN BERRY FIG. 15. Composite photomicrographs of sensorimotor cortex of rats aged 2 weeks fetal and newborn, 2, 5, 9, 15, and 21 days old. Each micrograph extends from the surface to the white matter. Comparison can be made of cortical thickness, cell packing density, and cell size (from Caley & Maxwell, 1971).
Orientation of all dendritic domains is in accordance with orientation of the corresponding cell bodies (from Van der Loos, 1965). time as the axon. Furthermore, if dendrodendritic induction were taking place, the contacts between dendrites necessary for the mediation of induc tion should be observable in the developing cortex. But no such relationships have been found (Morest, 1969b), although dendrodendritic synapses are formed in various sites in the adult CNS (Ralston, 1971). However, the recent discovery by Kristensson, Olsson, and Sjostrand (1971) that hypoglossal 36 MARTIN BERRY nerves can take up proteins at their terminals and transport these macromolecules to the soma has demonstrated a substrate by which the end organ could exert a trophic influence on the cell body.
Figure 15 is taken from a paper by Caley and Maxwell (1971) and clearly shows how the cells nuclei are separated from one another by increasingly large amounts of internuclear material as the cortex matures. IV. Growth of Axons A. Growth Cones The terminals of growing axons are expanded into structures called growth cones. , 1970). In the cerebellum growth cones are devoid of any organelles except vesicles which are usually oval in section but may also appear round o or even tubular. Their largest diameter may be as much as 1100 A.