By Edward A. Gill
Safely determine complicated geometrical distortions of cardiac anatomy and make extra knowledgeable judgements concerning prognosis and therapy with Atlas of 3D Echocardiography. This new cardiology reference offers the authoritative, case-based, professional assistance you want to improve your usage and interpretation of this state-of-the-art, dimensional diagnostic device.
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Extra resources for Atlas of 3D Echocardiography
Widely spaced can increase the volume size at the cost of lowering the resolution for a constant frame rate (Figure 3-11). Tight line spacing can be used in zoom modes to increase resolution, but at the price of a smaller volume. The number of transmit lines is a key determinant of frame rate; more lines increase the resolution but lower the frame rate. Beamforming can be subdivided into a coarse stage that occurs in the system and a fine steering or micro-stage that occurs in the transducer. The act of combining element signals is known as summing.
From this apical 3D dataset of the LV (Figure 2-16, A), multiple views can be derived from one full-volume dataset, including a four-chamber view (Figure 2-16, B), two-chamber view (Figure 2-16, C), three-chamber view (Figure 2-16, D), and short-axis view at the level of the mitral valve (lower right, displayed from the left ventricular perspective). Right Ventricle The right ventricle (RV) is acquired slightly differently compared with the LV. It is important to ensure that the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) is acquired, 35 36 Integration of Three-Dimensional Echocardiography in Routine Clinical Practice A B C D E Figure 2-16 Left ventricular real-time three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography volume.
Newer single-crystal materials that contain homogeneous solid-state domains are more efficient in the transduction process and have higher bandwidth (more upper and lower frequency content). This creates a concomitant increase of echo penetration and resolution. Although the M mode was an advance over the stethoscope, it was limited by its lack of field of view. M mode used a “transmit-listen-wait” duty cycle to determine the distance of targets along an unsteered scanline, and the operator needed to point the transducer to examine different cardiac structures.