Black Power Ideologies: An Essay in African-American by John McCartney

By John McCartney

In a scientific survey of the manifestations and that means of Black energy in the United States, John McCartney analyzes the ideology of the Black energy move within the Sixties and areas it within the context of either African-American and Western political proposal. He demonstrates, notwithstanding an exploration of historical antecedents, how the Black energy as opposed to black mainstream pageant of the sixties was once now not targeted in American heritage. Tracing the evolution of black social and political routine from the 18th century to the current, the writer makes a speciality of the tips and activities of the leaders of every significant approach.Starting with the colonization efforts of the Pan-Negro Nationalist stream within the 18th century, McCartney contrasts the paintings of Bishop Turner with the opposing integrationist perspectives of Frederick Douglass and his fans. McCartney examines the politics of lodging espoused by way of Booker T. Washington; W.E.B. Du Bois's competition to this apolitical stance; the formation of the NAACP, the city League, and different integrationist businesses; and Marcus Garvey's reawakening of the separatist excellent within the early twentieth century. concentrating on the serious criminal job of the NAACP from the Nineteen Thirties to the Sixties, McCartney supplies broad remedy to the ethical and political management of Martin Luther King, Jr., and his problem from the Black strength move in 1966.

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Alexander Crummell complains that the person "must be demented who cannot see God's providence in colonization,"" and he insists that Africans in the diaspora have a duty "to care for the heathen in general, and for our heathen [African] kin in particular. ' "47 However, Africa, with its "inexhaustible resources ," is the continent set aside for black greatness, so "let us go and possess it. "4s It is interesting that although most Pan-Negro Nationalists saw the slave experience as a most degrading one for African-Americans, Bishop Turner did not.

Lynch is insightful when he notes that the white colonialists who subjugated Africa after the Congress of Berlin in 1883 also preached that they were regenerating Africa and also claimed to be bringing Christianity and civilization. However, while the whites saw the Africans remaining as wards of the West into the foreseeable future, the Pan-Negro Nationalists wanted to release the creative potential of the African masses. "70 In Messianic terms, Delany assures us that when the Psalmist says that "princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God" (Ps.

30 Furthermore, Garnet characterized Douglass and his associates as "human beings who oppose everything that they do not originate. "31 In short, the tensions between the two schools of thought on a personal and on an ideological level are clear. S. society, because it presages the Copyrighted Material Black Nationalist Thought 21 skepticism of their twentieth century successors toward contemporary integrationist efforts. Separatists like Blyden and Crummell welcomed the Civil War because in Blyden's view it was the "purifier of a demoralised American conscience"32 and no doubt a means to bring slavery to an end.

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