By Andrew Blann, Nessar Ahmed
This e-book is approved via the Institute of Biomedical technology and written via its professional writers, lots of whom paintings at the Institute’s advisory panels.
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Extra resources for Blood Science: Principles and Pathology
Urea and electrolytes Lipids, glucose, diabetes and heart disease These tests include urea, creatinine, sodium and potassium and are described in detail in Chapter 12. The first The major risk factors for atherosclerosis, the disease process causing most heart disease, are smoking, 1 Introduction to Blood Science hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes. There is a blood test for smoking – cotinine – but the laboratory is most unlikely to offer it or even to agree to send it to a reference laboratory.
These indices are: the mean cell volume (MCV), the volume of the average (mean) red blood cell; the mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), which reports the average amount (mass) of haemoglobin in the average cell; and the mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), the average concentration of haemoglobin in a given volume of red cells. The red cell is discussed in detail in Chapters 3 and 4. White blood cells White blood cells, or leukocytes, defend us from attack by microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and parasites), when raised levels of these cells can be expected.
Activated partial thromboplastin time This test assesses the ability of a different series of coagulation proteins from those of the prothrombin to form a clot. Patient’s plasma is again incubated with a complex collection of reagents, and the time taken to clot from the addition of the calcium ions is also recorded in seconds. Fibrinogen An adequate level of fibrinogen is crucial if coagulation factors such as prothombin and thrombin are to have their desired effect. The laboratory measurement of fibrinogen activity is performed using a modified version of the thrombin time where the patient’s plasma is induced to clot.