Breast Cancer: Translational Therapeutic Strategies by Gary H. Lyman, Harold J. Burstein

By Gary H. Lyman, Harold J. Burstein

Contemplating the effect of translational breakthroughs at the early detection, prognosis, prevention, and remedy of breast melanoma, this all-encompassing consultant collects state of the art learn at the such a lot promising innovations and brokers prone to effect the administration and long term results of girls with breast melanoma. This booklet will offer present details on speedily evolving translational treatments, in addition to more suitable ideas for the choice of sufferers for those remedies.

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There was no attempt to assess the quality of these studies, although there are clear pointers to both the heterogeneity of the methodology and overall poor quality of reporting. Such findings are consistent with reviews in other cancers (43 –46) and in other disease areas (47). For example, Vollmer (43) summarized the findings of 54 multivariate analyses of survival from melanoma. He observed: In spite of 54 studies using multivariate techniques, there remain uncertainties about which prognostic factors to use in melanoma and how well we can predict the course of this disease.

A covariate with a hazard ratio greater than one (equivalent to a regression coefficient greater than zero) indicates that as the covariate increases the event hazard increases and thus the length of survival decreases. This proportionality assumption is often appropriate for survival time data but ought to be verified for each data set. Rather than just fit all the possible (candidate) variables in a prognostic model, many studies seek parsimonious prediction models by retaining only the most important prognostic factors.

38. Hansen S, Grabau DA, Sorensen FB, Bak M, Vach W, Rose C. Vascular grading of angiogenesis: prognostic significance in breast cancer. Br J Cancer 2000; 82(2):339– 347. 39. Sundquist M, Thorstenson S, Brudin L, Nordenskjold B. Applying the Nottingham Prognostic Index to a Swedish breast cancer population. South East Swedish Breast Cancer Study Group. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1999; 53(1):1– 8. 40. Collett K, Skjaerven R, Maehle BO. The prognostic contribution of estrogen and progesterone receptor status to a modified version of the Nottingham Prognostic Index.

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