Building expert systems in Prolog by Dennis Merritt

By Dennis Merritt

This e-book is aimed toward the Prolog programmer attracted to both development specialist platforms or experimenting with a number of professional method ideas. Dennis Merritt chooses a step by step method of development structures, explaining the techniques and displaying the Prolog code at every one level. The e-book builds on basic starting structures and progresses as much as particularly refined professional procedure instruments. It doesn't emphasize options of common sense programming or the particularities of Prolog, yet relatively, emphasizes Prolog as an effective software program improvement software, and teaches the right way to construct specialist platforms and layout the mandatory instruments. it is suggested (but no longer required) that the reader use a Prolog interpreter besides interpreting this e-book to scan with some of the Prolog examples given through the textual content.

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Pretty(av(A, yes), [A]) :- !. pretty(not av(A, yes), [not, A]) :- !. pretty(av(A, no), [not, A]) :- !. pretty(not av(A, V), [not, A, is, V]). pretty(av(A, V), [A, is, V]). The list_rules predicate writes a formatted listing of each rule used in deriving a given fact. list_rules([]). list_rules([R|X]) :list_rule(R), list_rules(X). list_rule(N) :rule(N, lhs(Iflist), rhs(Goal, CF)), write_line(['rule ', N]), write_line(['If']), write_ifs(Iflist), write_line(['Then']), pretty(Goal, PG), write_line([' ', PG, CF]), nl.

This is done in findgoal and prove. Each keeps a separate argument, Hist, which is the desired list of rules. The list is initially the empty list at the top call to findgoal. findgoal(Goal, CurCF, Hist) :fg(Goal, CurCF, Hist). fg(Goal, CurCF, Hist) :... prove(N, IfList, Tally, Hist), ... The prove predicate maintains the list by adding the current rule number on the head of the list before a recursive call to findgoal. The calls further down the recursion have this new rule number available for answers to why questions.

By passing this history along to the ask predicates, the ask predicates can now respond to why questions. prove(true, _) :- !. prove((Goal, Rest), Hist) :prov(Goal, (Goal, Rest)), prove(Rest, Hist). prov(true, _) :- !. 44 Chapter 4 - Explanation prov(menuask(X, Y, Z), Hist) :menuask(X, Y, Z, Hist), !. prov(ask(X, Y), Hist) :ask(X, Y, Hist), !. prov(Goal, Hist) :clause(Goal, List), prove(List, [Goal|Hist]). Notice that the history is a list of goals, and not the full rules as saved in Clam. The next step is to modify the top level predicate that looks for birds.

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