By Winthrop R. Wright
An exploration of even if ancient evidence really aid the preferred belief that Venezuelans have completed a racial democracy within which humans of all races reside unfastened from prejudice and discrimination.
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Additional info for Café con leche : race, class, and national image in Venezuela
But in 1816, they seemingly switched sides, joining the same creole faction against which they had recently fought a battle to the death. " and struck terror into the hearts of the Spaniards. In 1819, he admonished the members of the Congress of Angostura to comprehend their own mixed origins. Born out of the tensions of the late colonial era, and fostered by the bloody nature of the wars of independence, the fear of black insurrection gripped the imagination of remaining descendants of the creole aristocracy.
This promise he never fulfilled. Tens of thousands perished in one of the most chaotic chapters of Venezuela's history. Like Bolívar, they inherited the prejudices of the old creoles who abhorred the creation of a pardocracy. "68 The loss of Caracas would have signaled the end of white rule, in their estimation. Despite widespread death and destruction, the social order remained intact, changing only in that new members had access to the elites' positions as a result of their association with the winning faction.
29 Not only did they not want individuals from lower castes to encroach upon their previously white institutions, such as the university, the church hierarchy, and the militia, but they did not want those institutions contaminated or tainted by the presence of nonwhites. "31 Even Canary Islanders whose own ancestors had once shown no reluctance to marry pardos now shunned mixed marriages upon achieving some semblance of social wellbeing. Moreover, none of these movements met with success, and government officials moved quickly to crush them, with relative ease.