Cancer Stem Cells: Novel Concepts and Prospects for Tumor by S.-I. Nishikawa, M. Osawa (auth.), O.D. Wiestler, B.

By S.-I. Nishikawa, M. Osawa (auth.), O.D. Wiestler, B. Haendler, D. Mumberg (eds.)

This publication describes the new advancements within the rising box of melanoma stem cells. Their attainable influence for the identity of novel remedy paradigms for melanoma are mentioned. The publication will as a rule be of curiosity to scientists and clinicians eager about melanoma examine, or to scholars wishing to go into into this area.

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There are two major pathological groups in lung cancer: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), comprising 80% of the total, and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) comprising the remaining 20%. Increasing evidence shows that lung cancer occurs through a multistep oncogenic process. Bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC) and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), a premalignant lesion believed to be a precursor to BAC, are often present near areas of invasive adenocarcinoma (Yoshida et al. 2005; Saad et al. 2004; Kitamura et al.

5 β-Catenin β-catenin plays key roles in the Wnt pathway, first by transmitting Wnt signals to the nucleus and second in tumorigenesis, through regulation of oncogenes (including cyclin D1 and c-myc) or by its own sporadic mutations. Overexpression of β-catenin has been reported in lung cancer. It has been reported that increased expression of β-catenin is associated with a high proliferative index, but paradoxically a favorable prognosis (Hommura et al. 2002). Supporting this, two studies reported independently that reduced expression of β-catenin might be associated with a poor prognosis in adenocarcinoma (Retera et al.

Derailed binds Wnts through its extracellular WIF (Wnt inhibitory factor) domain, and Ror2 binds Wnts through a Wnt binding CRD motif. Signaling events downstream of these alternative Wnt receptors remain largely unclear (Lu et al. 2004; Mikels and Nusse 2006). Secreted inhibitory proteins can sequester Wnt ligands from their receptors. Among these are the secreted Frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs) and the Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) (Hsieh et al. 1999; Jones and Jomary 2002). The human SFRP family consists of five members, each containing a CRD domain.

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