By Yury Gogotsi and Volker Presser
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The resulting graphene sheets are of high quality without any significant structure defects demonstrated by electron diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It was shown that graphene sheets can also be made directly from natural graphite flakes, intercalated by oleum and tetrabutylammonium cations, and reduced in N,N-dimethylformamide by solvothermal method. 92 developed a gram-scale production of graphene-like carbon film by a bottom-up approach based on the common laboratory reagents ethanol and sodium.
C) STM image shows the graphene pattern with changes as a function of the positive sample bias. (d) The patterned institutional logo and initials by STM tips. (From Sessi, P. , 9, 4343, 2009. 22 (a) Structure of graphene. (b) Structure of fluorographene. , ACS Appl. Mat. Interfaces, 3, 4451, Copyright 2011. ) (c) Fluorination of graphene by xenon difluoride gas. (d) Photographs of graphene paper before (left) and after (right) fluorination, as well as the optical transparency of a 5 μm fluorographene film as a function of E.
Intercalation exfoliation. 111 In this method, after dispersion of CNTs in dry tetrahydrofuran by sonication, the dispersion was added into liquid NH3, and Li was then added into the liquid in a 10:1 Li:C weight ratio. The intercalation was carried out during a period of a few hours. After evaporation of NH3, a 10% HCl solution was stirred into the flask containing intercalated MWCNTs and then recovered with a microfiltration membrane. This process can produce small amounts of exfoliated MWCNTs (≈0–5%), however, mostly resulting in partially exfoliated or structurally damaged nanotubes.