By Basic Combinatorics

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**Example text**

If |A| = n and (n1 , . . , nk ) is a composition of n with k parts, then there are n ordered partitions (A1 , . . , Ak ) of A such that |Ai | = ni , i = 1, . . , k. ,nk n1 +···+nk =n ni ∈ n n1 , . . , n k = σ(n, k) ordered partitions of A with k blocks. Proof. Choose n1 elements of A to comprise A1 , n2 of the remaining n − n1 elements to comprise A2 , etc. 4). There are thus n − n1 n − n1 − n2 n − n1 − n2 − · · · − nk−2 ··· n2 n3 nk−1 n n! n2 ! · · · nk ! n1 , . . , n k n n1 ways to construct an ordered partition (A1 , .

If this hypothesis regarding (X1 , . . , Xk ) is rejected by the appropriate chi-squared test, doubt is accordingly cast on the hypothesis that Y has density function f . 1, you showed in Problem 5 that n kr k=0 In particular, n k2 k=0 n k = nr 2n−r for all n, r ∈ N. n k = n2 2n−2 for all n ∈ N. In general sums involving falling factorial powers are easier to evaluate than sums involving ordinary powers. Fortunately, the former can be used to evaluate the latter. For example, to evaluate n n s= k2 k k=0 2 2 1 1 one notes that k = k + k (k = k), so n (k 2 + k 1 ) s= k=0 n = n k n k 2 k=0 2 n−2 n n + k1 k k k=0 + n1 2n−1 =n 2 = n(n − 1)2n−2 + n2n−1 = n(n + 1)2n−2 Problem 15 yields to a similar strategy.

1, at least one bijection from the class S of all surjections f : A → B to the class P of all ordered partitions of A with k blocks. 5, there are (σ(n, k))! such bijections. Here is a particularly natural bijection β : S → P. Given f ∈ S, let β(f ) = (f ← (b1 ), f ← (b2 ), . . , f ← (bk )), where f ← (bj ) is the preimage of bj under f , for j = 1, . . , k. ). We say that the ordered partition β(f ) of A is induced by the surjection f : A → B relative to the labeling {b1 , . . , bk } of B.