Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution and by P.S. Verma

By P.S. Verma

Multicolour Illustrative version desk of Contents mobilephone Biology: advent, suggestions in phone Biology mobile Cytoplasmic Matrix Plasma Membrane and mobile Wall Endoplasmic Reticulum Cytoskeleton:Microtubuies, Microfilaments and Intermediate Filaments Centrioles and Basal our bodies Cilia and Flagella cellphone development and good department replica video game to genesis Fertilization Parthenogenesis development Genetics: creation Genetical Terminology Mendel and his paintings Genetic interplay and deadly Genes Quantitative Genetics Inbreeding, Outbreeding and Hybrid energy Molecular Biology: advent lIdentification of the Genetic fabrics Chemical Nature of Genetic fabrics Replication of DNA - Non-genetic Ribonucleic Acid and Transcription Genetic Code Protein Synthesis law of Gene motion Genetic Engineering, Immunology Genetic Recombination and Gene move - Evolution: advent - Deyeloprnent of the assumption of natural Evolutio four. surroundings: constitution and serve as Biogeochemical Cycles, Aquatic Ecosystems: Freshwater groups, Estuaries and Marine groups Terrestrial Ecosystems pollutants Ecology and Human Welfare Wild lifestyles administration Biogeography, variations Indices

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5. Cell fractionation. treated with trypsin enzyme to dissociate the cell aggregates into a suspension of viable single cells. These cells are plated in sterile petri-dishes and grown in the appropriate culture medium. When this culture is trypsinized and re-plated in a fresh medium then resultant culture is called secondary culture. Contents TECHNIQUES IN CELL BIOLOGY 29 The other major type of cell culture uses established cell lines, which have been adapted to prolonged growth in vitro. Among the best known cell lines are HeLa cells (obtained from a human carcinoma), the L and 3T3 cells (from mouse embryo), the BHK cells (from baby hamster kidney) and the CHO cells (from Chinese hamster ovary).

At each step larger metal rotor. Rapid rotation of the particles form a gelatinous pellet at the bottom of the rotor generates immense centrifugal forces, which cause particles in tube leaving smaller particles in the supernatant solusample to sediment. The vacuum tion. By decanting the supernatant and spinning it tends to reduce friction, preventharder, the next fraction can be brought down. Ultiing heating of the rotor and allowmately one is left with a supernatant solution having ing the refrigeration system to only soluble, molecular-sized components.

Such incubate cells cell in in radioactive spots will mark sites in the tissues where fixative compound the radioactive atoms have accumulated. These sites can be identified by examinslide ing the stained tissue sections under the light microscope. In the technique of autoradiograliquid emulsion phy, for the study of DNA metabolism of cell 3H-thymidine is used; for RNA mesection tabolism 3H-uridine is used; for protein dipping vessel synthesis various tritiated (3H-tagged) amino acids are used; and for polysacstore slides in dark box until ready to charides and glycoproteins tritiated dip slides into process monosaccharides such as 3H- mannose radiation-sensitive and 3H-fucose are employed.

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