Chemical Principles, Fifth Edition by Steven S. Zumdahl

By Steven S. Zumdahl

Chemical rules fifth version by means of Peter W. Atkins. W.H. Freeman,2010 (

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The Se term in the numerator indicates that the sorbent surface area available for adsorption also must be considered. 2 Estimation of Distribution Constants In addition to direct partitioning measurements, distribution constants can also be estimated from physicochemical data and chromatographic parameters. g. 4,7 The partitioning process in GC is analogous to the partitioning process in SPME, and there is a welldefined relationship correlating distribution constants and retention times. The nature of the gaseous phase does not affect the distribution constant unless components of the gas, such as moisture, swell the coating polymer, thus changing its properties.

A substantial increase of analyte extraction occurs at salt concentrations above 1% and leads to about an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity at the 30% level. Saturation with salt can be used not only to lower the detection limits of the analysis but also to normalise random salt concentration in natural matrices. 6 The effect of salt on extraction of toluene and benzene by SPME. 4 –4 –3 –2 –1 log (%NaCl) 0 1 2 Theory of Solid-Phase Microextraction 23 Note that salting can lower pH at high salt concentration levels because proton activity is increased with increased solution ionic strength.

It is impractical to introduce all compounds present in a sample to an analytical instrument. The method developed must eliminate compounds that are incompatible with the instrument, including matrix components. It is also desirable to remove as many of the unwanted compounds as possible, to make the ensuing data interpretation as clean and simple as it can be. Thus, with selective extraction, sample preparation is simplified and typically results in significant time savings and improvement in precision.

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