By Frank R. Spellman
To successfully take care of any chemical-based challenge, together with pollutants, environmental, overall healthiness and security pros should have at the very least a rudimentary figuring out of the fundamental ideas of chemistry. This publication offers such pros with an introductory reference that may aid them to appreciate the basic ideas of chemistry and to appreciate these ideas as they follow to the environmental compliance courses that keep an eye on office job. Written for somebody whose paintings contains environmental administration, making plans, effect evaluation, defense, or compliance, or whose duties comprise designing, enforcing, and comparing a overall healthiness and protection software, Chemistry for Nonchemists offers an in depth assessment of chemistry and its rules, chemical nomenclature, chemical reactions, and their program to regulatory compliance courses below a few of the environmental, overall healthiness and protection legislation. This ebook might help readers comprehend the "laws" of chemistry and the ramifications of out-of-control chemistry. The e-book starts off with a overview of the periodic desk, a glance at chemical constitution and bonding, and an evidence of key phrases. the writer, a 35-year environmental veteran, then specializes in the basics of natural and inorganic chemistry, the chemistry of water, and chemical reactions as they practice to environmental compliance courses. From there, he strikes to extra complicated discussions of solvents and solutes and concludes with in-depth examinations of complex sampling and research, the advanced reactions of metals, and chemistry's position in threat evaluate.
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Extra info for Chemistry for Nonchemists: Principles and Applications for Environmental Practitioners
Important in the context of environmental science, in general (but not always), the higher the molecular weight, the greater the likelihood that the compound may persist in the environment. 11). Groups are the columns of the periodic table, which contain elements with similar chemical properties. 12). 13). 14). 12. Nuclei increase with an increase in the atomic number. 13. Atomic radius increase. 14. Electron diagram. ATO MS AN D E LE ME NT S 25 Only ‘‘outer shell’’ electrons are involved in chemical change.
An example of a nonpolar bond is CHCl4. It is nonpolar because although the 4 C-Cl bonds are all polar, the symmetry of their arrangement around the central C atom makes the overall molecule nonpolar. Polar covalent bond: Here the valence electrons are shared unequally, causing the molecule to develop a positive end (where the electrons spend less time) and a negative end (where the electrons spend more time). This has to do with the electronegativity of the atom. The more electronegative the atom, the more it will hold onto the electrons.
Hydrogen bonding. 14. Hydrogen bond. SHORT REVIEW When an atom combines chemically with another atom, it will do one of the following: • Gain electrons (become a negatively charged ion or anion) • Lose electrons (become a positively charged ion or cation) • Share electrons ߜ Key Point: Atomic bonds have characteristic strengths and bond angles that contribute to the shape of molecules. Chemical Formulas A chemical formula tells us how many atoms of each element are in the molecule of any substance.