By John Green
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Atoms, or most of the atom, remains intact throughout chemical reactions. We now know, however, that atoms are not indivisible and are in fact composed of many smaller subatomic particles. Even though much of the atom does not change in chemical reactions, the outermost part of the atom (known as the valence electron shell) is crucial to chemical interactions, so knowing about the atomic structure of atoms allows us to understand how atoms join together to form compounds and why different atoms react in different ways.
3 Defi ne the terms mass number (A), atomic number (Z) and isotopes of an element. 4 Deduce the symbol for an isotope given its mass number and atomic number. 5 Calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in atoms and ions from the mass number, atomic number and charge. 6 Compare the properties of the isotopes of an element. 7 Discuss the use of radioisotopes © IBO 2007 I n 1807 John Dalton proposed his atomic theory - that all matter was made up of a small number of different kinds of atoms, that were indivisible and indestructible, but which could combine in small whole numbers to form compounds.
The total (known) amount of acid must be the sum of the amount that reacted with the alkali (known) and the amount that reacted with the sample (unknown) so the latter can be calculated. Back titration can be used to determine the percentage by mass of one substance in an impure mixture. For example a sample of calcium hydroxide, a base, containing nonbasic impurities can be reacted with excess hydrochloric acid. The excess amount of hydrochloric acid can then be determined by titrating with aqueous sodium hydroxide of known concentration.