Civil War in Poland, 1942–1948 by Anita J. Prażmowska (auth.)

By Anita J. Prażmowska (auth.)

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Thus even before the fall of France the doctrine that ‘all routes lead to Poland’ had taken root. 31 At least until the German attack on the Soviet Union in July 1941, there was little disagreement among Poles-in-exile about the fact that Poland was facing two enemies: Germany and the Soviet Union. Sikorski, however, unlike most members of the government-in-exile, was sensitive to the fact that neither France nor Britain was prepared to back the Polish point of view with actions. Whereas both, as a result of Germany’s refusal to withdraw from Polish territories, had declared war on Germany, neither was prepared to break off diplomatic relations with 16 Civil War in Poland, 1942–1948 the Soviet Union when it occupied Polish territories.

By boldly demanding land reform the authors nailed their colours to a radical programme. 25 The failure to complete the incorporation of the peasant units into the AK left many issues unresolved in the process of consolidation of all military organizations. When the peasant parties and organization came together in February 1940, it was decided to assume the conspiratorial name of ‘Roch’. Partisan units loyal to ‘Roch’ took the name . Chl´opska Straz (Peasant Guard), usually referred to as ‘Chl´ostra’.

The National Alliance leadership quarrelled and as a result Marian Seyda left the government only to be replaced in due course by Tadeusz Bielecki, another leading member of the National Alliance. The Socialist Party was also in disarray. 7 Kot was despatched to Moscow to take up the post of ambassador, where he was singularly ineffectual, as he was ignored by the Russians and outmanoeuvred by Wl´adysl´aw Anders, who had been appointed commander of the Polish units in the Soviet Union. The ministry of home affairs was taken over by Stanisl´aw Mikol´ajczyk, from the Peasant Alliance party.

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