Classical Trade Protectionism 1815-1914 by Jean-Pierre Dormois, Pedro Lains

By Jean-Pierre Dormois, Pedro Lains

Including contributions from such figures as Douglas Irwin, James Foreman-Peck, Kevin O'Rourke and Max-Stefan-Schulze, this key booklet summarizes the new empirical study conducted at the factor of the classical interval of alternate protectionism. It presents a foundation for revising greatly held perspectives at the commonplace results of price lists on financial constructions and growth, in addition to a historic viewpoint on fresh developments.

Long-held perspectives on smooth alternate rules were challenged via the advent of contemporary theoretical advancements in overseas economics and in dimension ideas led to within the Sixties and 70s. One query particularly has attracted consciousness and has contributed to the bringing to mild of a couple of formerly missed dimension and interpretation difficulties: the evaluate of French and British 19th century alternate rules.

This noteworthy quantity examines the theoretical and useful difficulties linked to the evaluation and size of the direct effect of price lists, prohibitions and quotas on household costs, output constitution and competitiveness. The individuals additionally study the direct and long-run effects of protectionist measures on specific economies, using facts from in-depth investigations of alternate facts in addition to ‘best perform’ statistical innovations resembling potent safety, elasticity of call for and printed comparative advantage.

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France, for its part [with the 1860 treaty] removed its prohibitions on the importations of British textiles and reduced tariffs on a wide range of British goods to a maximum of 30 percent; in fact, the average tariff was about 15 percent ad valorem. The French thus gave up extreme protectionism in favor of a moderate protectionism. (Cameron, 1989: 276) 8 The use of average tariff levels as a basis from which to denote the size and timing of the move to free trade is standard in the literature.

The differential again owing to administrative costs. When the excise on malt was repealed in 1880, so was the import duty. The malt duty was replaced by a direct excise on domestic beer of 6s. 3d. per barrel and an import tariff of 6s. 6d. per barrel. Tariffs on gold and silver plate, playing cards, and vinegar were also levied to match existing excise taxes on British producers of those goods. 11 Imported commodities that were not produced in Britain – such as tea, coffee, raw tobacco, and fruits – were also burdened with tariffs without having a protective effect.

27–50 15–19 6–11 10 4–11 Free 7–22 5 Free 4–19 5–7 Free 3–5 Free 23–38 17–50 17–23 53 Free Free Free Free 5 Free 8–13 Free Free 7–19 Free Source: Board of Trade, “Import duties on British goods (foreign countries),” in House of Commons, Sessional Papers, vol. 76 (London, 1877). Note *See note 23. 2 indicates that French tariffs on British exportables ranked among the highest in Europe and covered a wide range of articles in 1902 – a year not entirely unrepresentative of the last quarter of the nineteenth century, even though the 1892 French tariff entailed somewhat higher duties than the tariff of 1881.

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