Compiling functional languages by Leroy X.

By Leroy X.

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G. ) • More applications later. . 62 Variants of 0-CFA More precise analyses: • Polyvariant analyses (n-CFA, polymorphic splitting, . . ): distinguish between different call sites of the same function. • Finer approximation of values (Heintze’s set-based analysis): capture the shapes of data structures using grammars. Less precise (faster) analyses: • Coarser representations of sets of values: ∅ or {v} (singletons) or (all values). • Do not iterate till fixpoint: (Ashley, ICFP 1997) start with on all variables and do 1 or 2 iterations.

Let sort_list = λordering. λlist. in ... λy. compare(x,y)) some_list ... compare(x, y). 56 Opportunities for generating static calls In all of these cases: • application of a function in the static scope of its definition • recursive calls • higher-order functions applied only once we could (and should): • Generate calls to statically-known code addresses. g. succ (succ 2) ⇒ (2 + 1) + 1 57 Control-flow analyses (CFA) A program analysis is needed to discover those opportunities for closure optimization.

Vn) where v1, . . a. Note: the function code_fn above has no free variables. The occurrence of code_fn in makeblock(code_fn, \ldots) denotes a pointer to its (fixed) code. 53 From intermediate language to machine code Standard compiler technology applies largely unchanged. g. Modern Compiler Implementation in ML, Andrew W. Appel, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998. ) Calls to a computed address are expensive on modern processors: • the destination address is usually not predicted in advance; • this stalls the pipeline (cannot fetch and start executing instructions from the called function while earlier instructions complete).

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