By Ning Hu
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Extra resources for Composites and Their Applications
Equation (13) transforms the circular integration domain to a rectangular integration domain and eliminates the “square-root” singularity at the front of the inclusion corresponding to 1 / 2 . By applying Eqs. (11)-(13) to the BIEs (9) we obtain their regularized version as 1 sin 1 Af3 y 2 0 dS 2 Sy R y , f R y , sin dS S 0y 3 3 1 4 Gu in3 y , y y1 , y 2 S , 2 sin 1 fj y A 2 0 dS B 0 j y , sin 1dS Sy R y , S y 2 Bf3 j y 0 y , sin 1dS Sy 1 2 S 0y fj R j y , (14) 24 Composites and Their Applications f 3 j R j 3 j y , sin 1dS 4 G u inj y , j 1,2 , y y1 , y 2 S , where fj y fj x , u inj y u inj x , R j y , a 3R j x , , j 1,2,3, R kj y , a 3R kj x , , k, j 1,2 , k j .
As multiphase materials, composites exhibit distinct anisotropic properties. Their material capabilities, largely relating to manufacturing processes, are dispersive. Furthermore, the mechanisms of flaw initiating, spreading over the composite volume and leading to the ultimate failure are very complicated. So far, clearly description for the damage evolution and fracture behavior in composites remains a challenge work. Both the complex mechanical and damage characteristics can also make the optimization design for composites very difficult.
So far, clearly description for the damage evolution and fracture behavior in composites remains a challenge work. Both the complex mechanical and damage characteristics can also make the optimization design for composites very difficult. Because of lacking enough data cumulation and available standards, the composite design efficiency usually depends on the designer’s experiences and the final structures are easily prone to be over-designed . Another important problem for composites is that they are susceptible to impact damages due to the lack of reinforcement in the out-of-plane direction.