By Dipl.?Ing. (TU) Hansjorg Lipowsky, Dr. Emin Arpaci(auth.)
A accomplished and significant resource of knowledge at the homes, creation, processing and functions of copper and copper alloys, of curiosity to metallurgical, improvement, layout and trying out engineers within the automobile and different industries utilizing copper.
The authority at the back of this booklet - the German Copper Institute - was once based in 1927 and is the technical-scientific advisory heart for all questions bearing on purposes and the processing of copper and copper alloys in Germany. For greater than seventy five years, the technical clinical advisory and data carrier of the institute has been supplying specialist support at no cost. it really is supported by way of the copper undefined, the ecu Copper Institute (ECI) and The overseas Copper organization. it truly is powerfuble and energetic in concerns in regards to the use of copper not just in car but in addition in all form of business functions, in construction building, in electric engineering and in questions relating copper's significance for health.
Chapter 1 uncooked fabric assets (pages 1–2):
Chapter 2 creation (pages 3–9):
Chapter three type of Copper fabrics (pages 11–28):
Chapter four Wrought Copper fabrics (pages 29–43):
Chapter five Copper Casting fabrics (pages 45–53):
Chapter 6 homes of the Copper fabrics (pages 55–77):
Chapter 7 operating with Copper fabrics (pages 79–116):
Chapter eight layout Notes (pages 117–121):
Chapter nine software (pages 123–125):
Chapter 10 utilization homes (pages 127–143):
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Additional resources for Copper in the Automotive Industry
Copper and copper alloy wires for general use and for springs and fasteners are dealt with in EN 12166. 0 mm. The wires are shipped in rings or coils whereby large weights are important for economic efficiency on cutting machines. Coil weights of 1000 kg are usual, greater weights are possible by agreement with the manufacturer. For resistor wire there are no recent national specifications, an alloy of 56% Cu + 44% Ni, known as HECNUM is available in the UK and a similar material called KONSTANTAN is available in Europe.
The drawing machines are multi-draw with several draws, one behind the other. Drawing speeds of the final passes are very high as large cross section reductions take place. Coiling speeds are 40 to 60 m/s. The wire is often delivered in a hard condition as it must be annealed anyway for producing lacquered wire. If annealing is necessary, it is carried out under protective gas so that pickling can be eliminated. 6 Production of Rods and Profiles The production of rods and profiles is based on continuous cast billets with diameters of approximately 150 to 300 mm Æ and lengths of approximately 200 to 800 mm.
Besides the chemical composition, EN 1982 also shows the requirements for mechanical properties, electrical conductivity, microstructure and grain size as well as dezincification resistance and freedom of defects. They also contain details on definitions, designations and ordering information, information on test pieces, test procedures, declarations of conformity and test certificates as well as markings, labelling and packaging. 1 Copper and Copper–Chromium Casting Materials [1, 21] The standardization includes copper casting and copper–chromium casting alloys.