Cortical Development: From Specification to Differentiation by Richard S. Nowakowski, Verne S. Caviness Jr, Takao Takahashi

By Richard S. Nowakowski, Verne S. Caviness Jr, Takao Takahashi (auth.), Dr. Christine Hohmann (eds.)

The cerebral neocortex, a constitution targeted to the mammalian mind and prerequisite for better cognitive capabilities, has due to the fact a long time attracted the interest of neurobiologists and developmental biologists alike. This quantity supplies a entire and up to date evaluate of early cortical improvement. It offers concise info at the beginning, specification, migration and terminal differentiation of neocortical cells. either the mobile and molecular occasions resulting in the institution of a sensible neocortex are awarded in significant element, and attainable implications for neurodegenerative ailments are discussed.

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1996; Mabie et al. 1997, 1999; Marmur et al. 1998b; Mehler and Gokhan 1999; Gokhan et al. 2000). During different developmental periods, the actions of the BMPs mayaiso be modified by interactions with other signaling molecules. For example, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and BMP2 exert synergistic effects in promoting the generation of astrocytes from early embryonic cerebral cortical progenitor cells through the actions of the transcriptional co-regulator, p300/CBP (Nakashima et al. 1999a).

Thus, BMP-mediated signaling pathways impart context-dependent developmental effects and exhibit combinatorial profiles of actions by employing multi-level cellular modulatory mechanisms and feedback loops that encompass the extracellular ligands, plasmalemmal receptor complexes, cytoplasmic transduction elements, additional interacting cytokine signaling pathways and the transcriptional apparatus of diverse target genes (Massague et al. 2000). Cell- and developmental-stage-specific factors determine the selection of Smad target genes, and the activation state of the evolving Smad complexes are thereafter dictated by the profiles of recruitment of distinct classes of transcriptional co-activators and co-repressors (Massague et al.

Changes in k that change the cell cyde numbers by greater amounts have dramatic effects on the numbers of neurons produced. , the estimated number of cell cydes needed to make the human brain, would increase the number of neurons produced by almost 1O,000-fold (see Table2)! Indeed, this amount of expansion is approximately consistent with the greater number of cells in the larger human neocortex (Caviness et al. 1995). 12). 12. Visualization of the ehanges shown in the graphs of Fig. 11 and as given by Eqs.

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