By Axel Bronstert, Jesus Carrera, Pavel Kabat, Sabine Lütkemeier
This booklet considers an array of cutting-edge coupling and modelling strategies. First the appropriate Earth method cycles are awarded, through a dialogue on scale matters and a number of equilibria. Inter- and intra-compartmental coupling is addressed, besides a debate on non-linearities and questions of parameterisation. numerous functions are provided, the place a spotlight is on instances the place the hydrological cycle performs a valuable function.
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Extra resources for Coupled Models for the Hydrological Cycle: Integrating Atmosphere, Biosphere and Pedosphere
So, in the case of coupled models with many interacting processes, scaling methodologies are of particular importance. 1 Why is Scale an Issue for Modelling Hydrological Processes? Watching a movie of boats in the ocean, alert spectators immediately and intuitively identify whether the boats were ﬁlmed in a pool or in the actual ocean. Pool waves may look as large as ocean ones, but they never look as foamy. The reason is that surface tension, which is an important force for small water bodies, becomes negligible when compared with the inertial forces of true ocean waves.
1998b) yield markedly different regional climate change scenarios, even when common sets of GCM predictors are used. Finally, there is scepticism regarding the assumed stationarity of predictor-predictand relations (Wilby 1997), and the reproduction of low-frequency surface climate variability in downscaling schemes continues to be problematic (Katz and Parlange 1996). Dynamic downscaling is performed by applying regional atmospheric models. They simulate subscale climate features (relative to global models) dynamically at resolutions of 20-50 km, given time-varying atmospheric conditions supplied by the GCM bounding a speciﬁed domain (see reviews by McGregor 1997; Giorgi and Mearns 1999).
1993; Leung and Ghan 1995) to the subgrid resolution. In most regions, long-duration precipitation increases with elevation, due to the orographic uplift and cooling of moist air leading to precipitation. g. Leung and Ghan 1995; Leung et al. 1996). For convective cases, the disaggregation of rainfall cannot easily be related to surface characteristics because of the more random character of the appearance of convective cells. A. Hutjes The following tables give an indication of the most relevant time scales of importance / variance for a number of parameters in biosphere-atmosphere interactions.