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Extra info for Deregulation and Interdependence in the Asia-Pacific Region (National Bureau of Economic Research-East Asia Seminar on Economics)
For example, one means to assure transportation or communications services to remote communities is to introduce competitive bidding for providing service, where the franchise specifies price and service quality and requires that all customers be served who seek service at the price, subject to penalties for noncompliance. The subsidy can be provided from general revenues (as was enacted as part of airline deregulation in the United States, although the subsidy soon disappeared because small cities did not lose service), or through a tax on sales by all firms in the industry (as is the approach of the FCC in providing a fund to subsidize universal telephone service).
In these cases, formal separation of market access based on national boundaries is inefficient and precludes competitive entry by the firm that most plausibly could extend service in a monopoly service area at lowest cost. Hence, mutual relaxation of foreign investment restrictions by adjacent trading partners is a promising mechanism for speeding the evolution to competition after formal monopoly franchises have been removed. The voluntary WTO agreement regarding access by foreign telecommunications firms is a good illustration of the connectedness of international economic policy and domestic regulation.
Second, it reduces the extent of beneficial international specialization in other products as excessive transportation prices drive an unnecessary wedge between domestically produced goods and their foreign competition. Third, transportation regulation distorts input choices among transportation firms in ways that affect trade, such as by creating pressures to favor domestic equipment manufacturers and by insisting on inefficient route structures based on arbitrary distinctions between foreign and domestic terminals.