Discovering Life, Manufacturing Life: How the experimental by Pierre V. Vignais, Paulette M. Vignais

By Pierre V. Vignais, Paulette M. Vignais

This booklet tells the tale of the way thinkers, over the years, have dared to discover utilizing experimental units and the way the experimental strategy proven itself and took a foremost position within the existence sciences.

While existence sciences proceed to boost and data turns into extra frequent and available, philosophers now specialize in difficulties of ethics really with recognize to the reproductive services that modern biology is ready to manage and modify.

Looking on the gorgeous development made by way of medical idea during the last 5 centuries we would ask ourselves what have been the triggering components that bring about the experimental process. How did this logical and target method of the exploration of assorted enigmas in nature come up and unfold at a selected second in time within the western international? was once there a power from the social, spiritual or political context? used to be the strength of some participants enough to start up this type of revolution?

The authors of this publication take us on trip of the brain, from the traditional roots of medical rationality to today’s impossible to resist development in genetic manipulation, relatively interested by people. unavoidably this can lead the reader to view the best way technology is completed at the present time below a brand new mild. a desirable dialogue, in line with concrete examples and experiments, offers nutrition for idea, not just with recognize to the experimental strategy itself, but additionally in regards to the association of technological know-how because it exists at the present time and the way it's perceived.

About the authors:

Pierre V. Vignais, a technology physician and a physician of drugs, used to be provided a scholarship of the Fondation Roux on the Pasteur Institute of Paris. Professor emeritus of Biochemistry of the scientific university of the collage Joseph Fourier and director of a URA-CNRS on the CEA (French Atomic strength Commission), he obtained the CNRS Silver Medal and the Grand Prix de l'Académie des Sciences. He died, elderly eighty, in September 2006.

Paulette M. Vignais, his spouse, got her degree in chemical engineering from the Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris (ENSCP) and acquired her Ph.D. in biochemistry from the college of Paris. She lately retired from a place of Emeritus director of study on the CNRS the place she directed a CNRS-CEA Unit on the CEA.

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The library of Alexandria was pillaged and partly burned. The Golden Age of Alexandria came to an end in the 7th century. Thus came the disappearance of a brilliant civilization that had illuminated the Ancient World. 4. T HE POST -HELLENISTIC PERIOD H IATUS OR TRANSITION WITH THE M IDDLE AGES ? During the reign of emperor CONSTANTINE (270 - 337), Byzantium, which had become Constantinople, acquired the status of a capital city, and Christianity was decreed to be the State Religion. Constantinople attracted Greek men of letters and became the new seat of science.

The manufacture of paper, which had been in use in China since the 2nd century AD, was introduced into Europe in the 12th century. However, the most important revolution from the intellectual and cultural point of view remains the invention of printing. Here again, the Chinese were the precursors. BI SHENG (11th century) has been credited with the production of thousands of writing characters in terra cotta to be used for the printing of books. Made of clay, the characters were fixed to an iron plate using a resin, prior to printing.

The formation of the plant from seed, at the same time creating terms having a specific scientific meaning for a grouping of words; for example, pericavrpion (pericarp) designates the envelope that surrounds the fruit (cavrpion). Because of all his contributions, THEOPHRASTES is considered to be the father of botany. The interest in plants shown by THEOPHRASTES and his successors was based on the search for properties that would help in the treatment of illnesses, which led to the early developmentof a pharmacopoeia that was rich is remedies of plant origin.

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