By US Department of Energy
The dept of strength basics guide on chemistry, such as complete volumes.
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CH-01 Page 24 Rev. 0 Fundamentals of Chemistry DOE-HDBK-1015/1-93 CHEMICAL BONDING Because of this, the positive and negative ions arrange themselves in three dimensions, as shown in Figure 6(B), to balance the charges among several ions. In sodium chloride, for example, each chloride ion is surrounded by as many sodium ions as can easily crowd around it, namely six. Similarly, each sodium ion is surrounded by six chloride ions. Therefore, each chloride ion is bonded to the six nearest sodium ions and bonded to a lesser extent to the more distant sodium ions.
CH-01 Page 28 Rev. 0 Fundamentals of Chemistry DOE-HDBK-1015/1-93 CHEMICAL BONDING The general formula for alkanes is CnH2n+2. The alkanes are colorless, practically odorless, insoluble in water, and readily soluble in nonpolar solvents such as benzene or ether. Alkanes are low in reactivity. The reactions they do undergo are called halogenation, thermal decomposition (cracking), and combustion. These are summarized below. Halogenation occurs when a hydrogen atom is replaced with a halogen atom.
33 grams of oxygen are combined with 1 gram of carbon. 67 grams of oxygen are combined with 1 gram of carbon. Therefore, the masses of oxygen combining with a fixed mass of carbon are in the ratio 2:1. CH-01 Page 32 Rev. 0 Fundamentals of Chemistry DOE-HDBK-1015/1-93 CHEMICAL BONDING Combining Elements The Laws of Definite Proportions and Multiple Proportions and the related portions of atomic theory form the bases for most quantitative calculations involving chemical reactions. Applying the basic chemical laws to chemical bonding will help the reader to understand the probability and proportions involved in chemical reactions.