Elementary Chemical Reactor Analysis (Butterworth's Series by Rutherford Aris

By Rutherford Aris

Treats the basics of chemical reactor research and offers crucial arithmetic. each one topic is brought with an easy instance ahead of the final case is constructed, and covers stoichiometry, thermochemistry, chemical kinetics, and several other types of uncomplicated reactors.

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Extra resources for Elementary Chemical Reactor Analysis (Butterworth's Series in Chemical Engineering)

Example text

G r a f t copolymers have been p r e p a r e d from seve backbones poly(vinyl chloride) polychloroprene, chlorinate b r o m o b u t y l r u b b e r , c h l o r i n a t e d p o l y ( b u t a d i e n e ) , and c h l o r i n a t e d b u t a d i e n e - s t y r e n e copolymer. I n t h e most t h o r o u g h l y examined c a s e s w i t h p o l y t e t r a h y d r o f u r a n as t h e g r a f t e d copolymer and s i l v e r t r i f l a t e as t h e i n o r g a n i c s a l t , c u r r e n t d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t no u n r e a c t e d backbone remains and no homopolymer forms.

E v i d e n c e t h a t t h e y do o c c u r was o b t a i n e d from uv s p e c t r o s c o p y . Figure 5 shows the uv s p e c t r a f o r t r e a t e d and u n t r e a t e d c h l o r o ­ b u t y l r u b b e r s . A s h o u l d e r from 220 t o 240 πιμ appears i n the polymer i s o l a t e d a f t e r the g r a f t i n g r e a c t i o n . This shoulder i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h but not proof t h a t d i e n e s a r e b e i n g formed. Because the b r o m o b u t y l r u b ­ b e r uv spectrum a l r e a d y c o n t a i n e d a s i m i l a r a b s o r p t i o n b e f o r e the a t t e m p t e d g r a f t i n g , i t was d i f f i c u l t t o ob­ t a i n c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e f o r an i n c r e a s e d d i e n e c o n ­ tent a f t e r grafting T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t s i n c e a f t e r the g r a f t i n m a r k e d l y i n c r e a s e d t e n d e n c y t o g e l and samples r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the whole were n o t p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n .

As i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 2 the volume change t h a t occurred d u r i n g homop o l y m e r i z a t i o n was q u i t pansion i n volume occurred 70°, a 7% expansion i n volume occurred; a t 85 a 2% expansion took p l a c e and the expansion decreased u n t i l a t 115° no change i n volume took p l a c e d u r i n g p o l y m e r i z a t i o n ; above 115° a s l i g h t shrinkage occurred. I t i s obvious from these data t h a t the l a r g e expansion i n volume t h a t occurs below the m e l t i n g p o i n t i n v o l v e s not o n l y the i n c r e a s e i n volume due t o the double ring-opening, but a l s o a change i n volume o f 3-6% due t o the process o f going from a c r y s ­ t a l l i n e monomer t o a l i q u i d monomer.

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