Epigenetic Mechanisms in Cellular Reprogramming by Alexander Meissner, Jörn Walter

By Alexander Meissner, Jörn Walter

The skill of a unmarried genome to provide upward thrust to 1000's of functionally certain phone style courses is in itself striking. Pioneering experiences over the last few a long time have confirmed that this plasticity is retained all through improvement, a phenomenon of epigenetic programming and reprogramming that is still the most interesting parts of contemporary biology, with significant relevance to human overall healthiness and illness. This ebook offers the fundamental biology concerned, together with key mechanistic insights into this quickly starting to be field.

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Development 137(12):1953–1963 Egli D et al (2007) Developmental reprogramming after chromosome transfer into mitotic mouse zygotes. Nature 447(7145):679–685 Egli D et al (2009) Reprogramming after chromosome transfer into mouse blastomeres. Curr Biol 19(16):1403–1409 Esteves TC et al (2010) Somatic cell nuclear reprogramming of mouse oocytes endures beyond reproductive decline. Aging Cell 10(1):80–95 The Oocyte Determinants of Early Reprogramming 25 Foygel K et al (2008) A novel and critical role for Oct4 as a regulator of the maternal-embryonic transition.

Current quantitative proteomic methods include 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), nano-liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC MS/MS), and label-free as well as stable-isotope labeling strategies for mass spectrometry-based quantifications (SILAC or iTRAQ-LC MS/MS). The identification of biomarkers of oocyte quality, developmental, as well as reprogramming potential became possible by using these methods. The first attempt to pursue the reprogramming proteome was made in 2004 (Novak et al.

However, iPS cell technology requires up to 14 days and is therefore least efficient compared to SCNT and cell fusion (Takahashi and Yamanaka 2006). The fast reprogramming occurring after SCNT is suggested to correlate with cell cycle kinetics that also differs between a somatic and an embryonic cell (Kubiak and Ciemerych 2001). The event of embryonic genome activation (EGA) fundamentally contributes to the alteration in cell cycle regulation during oocyte-mediated nuclear reprogramming after first cleavage.

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