By J. A. Chandler
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102 R. Porter, English Society in the Eighteenth Century (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1982), pp. 131–2, observes that ‘out of 2,399 children received into London workhouses in the five years after 1750 only 165 were alive in 1755’. 103 M. J. Daunton, Progress and Poverty: An Economic and Social History of Britain, 1700–1850 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 463–7. 104 W. E. Tate, The Parish Chest: A Study of the Records of Parochial Administration in England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1946), p.
126 Redlich and Hirst, Local Government in England, vol. 2, p. 157. 127 P. Slack, The English Poor Law (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1990), pp. 30, 34. 1 While the 1832 crisis precipitated these major reforms, they were not a radical break with the past. Poor Law unions, improvement commissions and Peel’s ideas on police and prisons were anticipating modernisation and central control, but there was no consistency evident in the direction in which these reforms were taking local government. While the Poor Law Amendment Act is depicted as the beginning of centralisation, the Municipal Corporations Act, along with the enfranchisement after 1832 of the urban conurbations, suggested the possibility of a more decentralised patron–client system, as obtained in France.
M. Thackery, Vanity Fair (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1985), pp. 131–2. 42 Onley, Rural Society, p. 77. 43 Webb and Webb, The Parish and the County, pp. 559–80. 44 D. Eastwood, Governing Rural England: Tradition and Transformation in Local Government 1780–1840 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994), p. 32. 45 Webb and Webb, The Parish and the County, pp. 533–50. , p. 388. 47 Eastwood, Governing Rural England, pp. 105–6. 48 J. R. Western, The English Militia in the Eighteenth Century (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1965), pp.