Foundations of Object-Oriented Languages Types and Semantics by Kim B. Bruce

By Kim B. Bruce

In recent times, object-oriented programming has emerged because the dominant machine programming variety, and object-oriented languages reminiscent of C++ and Java take pleasure in large use in academia and undefined. this article explores the formal underpinnings of object-oriented languages to aid the reader comprehend the elemental ideas of those languages and the layout judgements in the back of them.The textual content starts via examining latest object-oriented languages, paying exact awareness to their variety structures and impediments to expressiveness. It then examines key good points: subtypes and subclasses. After a quick creation to the lambda calculus, it provides a prototypical object-oriented language, SOOL, with an easy variety process just like these of class-based object-oriented languages in universal use. The textual content bargains facts that the kind process is sound by means of exhibiting that the semantics preserves typing info. It concludes with a dialogue of fascinating beneficial properties, akin to parametric polymorphism and a MyType build, that aren't but integrated in so much statically typed object-oriented languages.


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If the run-time type of exp is a subtype of S, the value of exp will be stored in the location corresponding to x. However, if the run-time type of exp fails to be a subtype of S, the value void is assigned to x. Thus in neither case does a run-time type error or system-generated exception occur. This reverse assignment can be understood as a very restricted form of typecase. 3 As we shall see later, type restrictions on the redefinition of methods in many object-oriented languages give rise to situations where programmers often feel the need to by-pass the static type system.

Function contains(x, y: Integer): Boolean is { ... } } The method name contains is listed twice. The two versions of contains have slightly different signatures as one takes a parameter of type Point while the other takes two parameters of type Integer that represent the coordinates of a point. It is convenient to use the same name for these methods because they represent essentially the same operation, even though the parameter types are different. As long as their signatures are different, both Java and C++ treat methods with overloaded names as though they had completely different names.

Not all other researchers agree with our views on this topic. For example, Abadi and Cardelli, in their very influential text, A Theory of Objects [AC96], argue that objects are more primitive than classes, and that mechanisms other than classes are useful in generating objects with common properties. Moreover they argue that classes are superfluous because they can be defined in terms of objects. This allows them to start with a very simple object calculus and define a variety of mechanisms (including classes) for generating objects.

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