Germany and the Holy Roman Empire, Volume 2: The Peace of by Joachim Whaley

By Joachim Whaley

Germany and the Holy Roman Empire bargains a brand new interpretation of the advance of German-speaking principal Europe and the Holy Roman Empire or German Reich, from the nice reforms of 1495-1500 to its dissolution in 1806 after the turmoil of the French progressive and Napoleonic Wars. Going opposed to the proposal that this used to be an extended interval of decline, Joachim Whaley exhibits how imperial associations built based on the crises of the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly the Reformation and Thirty Years conflict, and assesses the impression of foreign advancements at the Reich. relevant issues are the stress among Habsburg aspirations to create a German monarchy and the will of the German princes and towns to keep up their conventional rights, and the way the Reich built the services of a nation in this interval.

The first single-author account of German historical past from the Reformation to the early 19th century considering that Hajo Holborn's research written within the Fifties, it additionally illuminates the advance of the German territories subordinate to the Reich. Whaley explores the consequences of the Reformation and next spiritual reform events, either Protestant and Catholic, and the Enlightenment for the govt. of either secular and ecclesiastical principalities, the minor territories of counts and knights and the towns. The Reich and the territories shaped a coherent and possible procedure and, as a polity, the Reich constructed its personal detailed political tradition and traditions of German patriotism over the early smooth interval.

Whaley explains the advance of the Holy Roman Empire as an early sleek polity and illuminates the evolution of the different hundred German territories inside it. He supplies a wealthy account of issues similar to the Reformation, the Thirty Years struggle, Pietism and baroque Catholicism, the Aufklarung or German Enlightenment and the effect at the Empire and its territories of the French Revolution and Napoleon. It contains attention of language, cultural elements and spiritual and highbrow pursuits. Germany and the Holy Roman Empire engages with the entire significant debates between either German and English-speaking historians approximately early sleek German heritage over the past sixty years and provides a remarkable new interpretation of this crucial period.

Volume II starts off with the tip of the Thirty Years warfare and extends to the dissolution of the Reich

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Additional resources for Germany and the Holy Roman Empire, Volume 2: The Peace of Westphalia to the Dissolution of the Reich, 1648-1806

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Originally, it represented the monthly cost of maintaining the troops sent to accompany a newly elected Emperor to Rome for his coronation by the pope. The notional value, based on the cost of maintaining 4,202 cavalry and 20,063 infantry, as agreed in 1521, was originally about 128,000 gulden. By the seventeenth century, following the departure of territories and cities that lost their independent status from the 1521 assessment list and taking into account the money due from the various Habsburg territories, the value was about 64,000 gulden.

In 1666, they attempted another conquest of Bremen. The Second Northern War underlined the fragility of the Westphalian peace, but also the extent of French influence on the Reich. It would be easy to conclude that the emperor had become irrelevant, opposed by many Estates and held in check by all of them. That, however, ignores the significant contribution made by Austria to the defeat of the Swedes. Ferdinand III had been reluctant to become involved, particularly in a dispute that did not involve the Reich during his lifetime.

The crisis was resolved by December 1654, but Sweden’s reputation in the Reich was badly dented and Sweden lost all interest in any aspect of the Reich beyond its own territories. 7 The new king inherited a dire financial situation that was only marginally 5 Wrede, Reich, 217–22. Bremen formally became an Imperial City after a long struggle with the archbishops (latterly Protestant dukes of Schleswig-Holstein): Schindling and Ziegler, Territorien, iii, 44–57; Schilling, ‘Homagium’. 7 He was a grandson of Charles IX and the son of Gustavus Adolphus’s half-sister.

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