By Ronald W. Dudek
High-Yield™ phone and Molecular Biology, 3rd Edition offers the basic info wanted for USMLE Step 1 evaluate and direction examine. It covers present mobile and molecular biology strategies and rules with a medical focus—what a doctor must comprehend to appreciate, diagnose, and deal with human sickness. Molecular biology is usually taught inside a variety of classes resembling biochemistry, microbiology, and histology; hence, a consolidated overview booklet in molecular biology is principally necessary in getting ready for the USMLE Step 1.
This variation has been streamlined to take away content material coated in different High-Yield™ books similar to histopathology and microbiology. pictures were put toward the correct textual content. New figures comprise DNA melting curve and circulate cytometry.
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E. After the repeats of TTAGGG are added to the parental strand, DNA polymerase ␣ uses the TTAGGG repeats as a template to synthesize the complementary repeats on the lagging strand. Thus, the lagging strand is lengthened. F. DNA LIGASE joins the repeats to the lagging strand and a nuclease cleaves the ends to form double-helix DNA with flush ends. G. , in skin, bone marrow, and gut), but is absent from most other somatic cells. V DNA Damage A. GENERAL FEATURES 1. Chromosomal breakage refers to breaks in chromosomes due to sunlight (or ultraviolet) irradiation, ionizing irradiation, DNA cross-linking agents, or DNA-damaging agents.
KEARNS-SAYRE SYNDROME (KS) 1. KS is a mitochondrial genetic disorder caused by partial deletions of mitochondrial DNA (delta-mtDNA) and duplication of mitochondrial DNA (dup-mtDNA). The partial deletions of mtDNA have been associated with a marked reduction in the enzymatic activity of NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), succinate dehydrogenase (Complex II), ubiquinone-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (Complex III), and cytochrome oxidase (Complex IV). 2. Heteroplasmy is common and expression of the disease is highly variable.
G. , both males and females inherit mtDNA from the mother, but males do not transmit their mtDNA to subsequent generations). During fertilization and zygote formation, the sperm contributes its nuclear genome but not its mitochondrial genome because all sperm mitochondria degenerate. Consequently, the mitochondrial genome of the zygote is determined exclusively by the mitochondria found in the cytoplasm of the unfertilized secondary oocyte. II The 13 Protein-Coding Genes (Figure 5-2, Table 5-1).