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Extra resources for Human Development Report 2009: Overcoming Barriers: Human Mobility and Development
In contrast to most aspects of economic policy, for example, national statistical bureaux do not measure the effects of migration policy in ways that are consistent across countries. Most of the measures used in this report have been developed by international research and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), not by national publicsector agencies. The measure that covers the largest number of countries and the longest time span comes from a periodic survey of policy makers conducted by UNDESA, in which governments report their views and responses to migration.
This is as true of origin countries, which often 2 Population movements have played a vital role in the structural transformation of economies throughout history 29 2 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2009 Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development subsidized passage in order to reduce pressures at home, as it was of destination governments, which invited people to come in order to consolidate settlements and take advantage of natural resources. 48 More generally, the late 19th century was marked by the absence of the plethora of mechanisms to control international flows of people that subsequently emerged.
Migrant selectivity usually reflects the effect of economic, geographical or policy-imposed barriers that make it harder for low-skilled people to move. This is most evident in terms of formal education. 24 Immigrants to the OECD from developing countries tend to be of working age: for example, over 80 percent of those from sub-Saharan Africa fall into this group. 25 What do we know about migrant selectivity in developing countries? When the migration process is more selective, individuals of working age (who have higher earning capacity than those out of the labour force) form a large proportion of movers.