Introduction To Molecular Genetics And Geonomics by hearts

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A long DNA chain can direct the synthesis of a variety of different protein molecules. 3. A genetic material must also be capable of undergoing occasional mutations in which the information it carries is altered. Furthermore, so that mutations will be heritable, the mutant molecules must be capable of being replicated as faithfully as the parental molecule. This feature is necessary to account for the evolution of diverse organisms through the slow accumulation of favorable mutations. Watson and Crick suggested that heritable mutations might be possible in DNA by rare mispairing of the bases, with the result that an incorrect nucleotide becomes incorporated into a replicating DNA strand.

Guide to Problem Solving Problem 1 In the human gene for the ␤ chain of hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying protein in the red blood cells), the first 30 nucleotides in the amino-acid–coding region have the sequence 3'-TACCACGTGGACTGAGGACTCCTCTTCAGA-5' What is the sequence of the partner strand? Answer The base pairing between the strands is A with T and G with C, but it is equally important that the strands in a DNA duplex have opposite polarity. The partner strand is therefore oriented with its 5' end at the left, and the base sequence is 5'-ATGGTGCACCTGACTCCTGAGGAGAAGTCT-3' Problem 2 If the DNA duplex for the ␤ chain of hemoglobin in Problem 1 were transcribed from left to right, deduce the base sequence of the RNA in this coding region.

Genetics 155: 481. Bearn, A. G. 1994. Archibald Edward Garrod, the reluctant geneticist. Genetics 137: 1. Calladine, C. R. 1997. Understanding DNA: The Molecule and How It Works. New York: Academic Press. , A. Orian, and A. L. Schwartz. 2000. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis: Biological regulation via destruction. Bioessays 22: 442. Doolittle, W. F. 2000. Uprooting the tree of life. Scientific American, February. , S. R. Schmidt, C. R. Muller, S. Srsen, K. Srsnova, and W. Kress. 1997. Molecular defects in alkaptonuria.

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