By Stefano Ceri
The subject of common sense programming and databases. has received in creasing curiosity in recent times. a number of occasions have marked the fast evolution of this box: the choice, by means of the japanese 5th new release undertaking, of Prolog and of the relational information version because the foundation for the advance of recent desktop archi tectures; the focusing of analysis in database idea on good judgment queries and on recursive question processing; and the pragmatic, application-oriented improvement of specialist database structures and of knowledge-base platforms. hence, an important quantity of labor has been produced within the fresh literature, coupled with the spontaneous development of numerous complex tasks during this region. The target of this ebook is to offer a scientific review of a swiftly evolving self-discipline, that's almost immediately no longer defined with an identical strategy in different books. We intend to introduce stu dents and researchers to this new self-discipline; therefore we use a undeniable, educational kind, and supplement the outline of algorithms with examples and workouts. we try to accomplish a stability be tween theoretical foundations and technological concerns; hence we current a cautious advent to the hot language Datalog, yet we additionally specialise in the effective interfacing of good judgment programming formalisms (such as Prolog and Datalog) with huge databases.
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We consider the following issues: a) We discuss the components and the alternative architectures of systems for coupling Prolog systems to relational databases. b) Within the alternative architectures, we discuss methods for interfacing a database and a Prolog system; we introduce the concept of base conjunction as the unit of interaction between the Prolog and the database environments. c) We then discuss various methods for optimizing the performance of the interface. Our major concern is the saving of database access operations.
Db n of dbps in the bc such that each dbi in bc shares some variables just with dbi-l (when 1 < i :s; n) and with dbi+l (when 1 :s; i < n); otherwise, the base conjunction is cyclic. bC! is a chain base conjunction, while the following bC4 is cyclic: The exported variables of a base conjunction are the variables of the bc which are shared with the remainder of the rule. For instance, in the following rule: g02(Xd : -dbl(Xl, X2), db2(X2, X3), db3(Xl,X3),Pl(X3). 48 Chapter 4 Coupling Prolog Systems to Relational Databases which includes the base conjunction bC4, the exported variables of bC2 are Xl and X3.
Note that variables are renamed after composition; equality predicates (Yi = b) and (Z2 = c) are transformed by including constants b and c within database predicates d~ and dba in place of variables Yi and Z2. Then, the basic conjunction 50 Chapter 4 Coupling Prolog Systems to Relational Databaslls bCl(Xl,X4) is recognized, and the rule gOl is rewritten as: gOl(Xl,X4) : - bCl(Xl,X4).