By Riki Kurokawa
This publication provides a typical precept of activities of lengthy noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) from issues of view on the atomic, molecular and mobile degrees. on the atomic point, chemical experiences of ribonucleic acids clarify the chemical habit of lncRNAs. Structural organic research of lncRNAs and its binding proteins additionally demonstrate the ideal mechanisms in their activities. Molecular organic methods bring about insights into molecular mechanisms of those lncRNA activities. on the mobile or person point of research, we seize the biology and medication of lncRNAs. those 3 layers of methods are completely new and convey novel insights into capabilities of lncRNAs in dwelling cells. The e-book comprises 5 elements: 1) Bioinformatics and different methodologies for lncRNAs, 2) Atomic and molecular constructions of lncRNAs, three) Molecular services of lncRNAs, four) organic activities of lncRNAs, and five) strength results for medical medication. those sections attach good and paintings synergistically. The e-book is for researchers whose forte is RNA biology and chemistry and likewise for complicated scholars on the graduate and undergraduate degrees. Readers can grab the vanguard of lncRNA stories in a entire demeanour and are encouraged to pursue their very own specific interests.
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Extra resources for Long Noncoding RNAs: Structures and Functions
LncRNAs in Disease and Development Interestingly, lncRNAs, which are more stable than mRNA transcripts, can be detected as free nucleic acids in urine and blood, and have been harnessed in clinically approved molecular diagnostic tests for prostate carcinoma (Shappell 2008). Summarizing all of them is beyond the scope of this review, and only a brief overview of certain prominent lncRNAs is given here. A lncRNA called terminal differentiation-induced lncRNA (TINCR), which is capable of regulating somatic tissue differentiation by binding directly to the STAU1 protein and stabilizing the differentiation-associated mRNAs, has been identified (Kretz et al.
Methods Mol Biol 809:563–577 2 Synthetic Strategies to Identify and Regulate Noncoding RNAs 39 Bose D, Jayaraj G, Suryawanshi H, Agarwala P, Pore SK, Banerjee R, Maiti S (2012) The tuberculosis drug Streptomycin as a potential cancer therapeutic: inhibition of miR-21 function by directly targeting its precursor. Angew Chem Int Ed 51:1019–1023 Burkholder GD, Latimer LJ, Lee JS (1991) Immunofluorescent localization of triplex DNA in polytene chromosomes of Chironomus and Drosophila. Chromosoma 101:11–18 Buske FA, Mattick JS, Bailey TL (2011) Potential in vivo roles of nucleic acid triple-helices.
Several small molecules have been shown to be capable of binding to and modulating the function of RNA structures. A rational design strategy based on a Janus wedge recognition unit yielded a ligand (Fig. 5a) with high affinity for CUG trinucleotide repeats, and which is known as sequester muscle blind-like (MBNL) proteins, which are involved in DM1 (Arambula et al. 2009). This ligand destabilizes the toxic poly(CUG) sequences and MBNL1, even in the presence of tRNA. N. Pandian et al. 34 a N H2 N Janus type binding between the T-T/U-U mismatch NH2 N X N H HN NH OCH 3 R N N N N O N H N H N N R b O H H Cl R X O N N R N X N x= CH 3, H N N R O c HN K-alkyne HO HO N OH N H 2N O HO NH2 O HO HN N HN NH2 OH O DM2 motif N N O O R N X N H N HN O H H x= CH3, H H N H N O H N N O N H H N H OH HN H2 N e N O O HO O HN H3C N N N N O N H 2N H3C N O NH N O N O H3C 4 N O O H3C OH N H OH H H N H OH H Lomofungin O O O DMSO OH N HO OH N H OH N OH H OH O NH CH 3 O N H O d H3C HN OH f H NH2 O O HO O HN NH2 Netilmicin O N H N Mature miRNA miRNA gene miRNA/RISC O Dilomofungin Fig.