By Alison Twycross, Stephanie Dowden, Jennifer Stinson
Providing an evidence-based, functional consultant to care in all parts of kid's discomfort administration, handling soreness in young children bargains nurses and different healthcare execs an creation to the talents and services to regulate kid's soreness successfully.
This fully-updated moment variation first explores the suitable anatomy and body structure of youngsters, the most recent coverage guidance surrounding ache administration and moral matters all in favour of dealing with kid's ache. numerous soreness evaluation instruments to be had for kids and non-drug tools of soreness reduction are then explored and utilized to perform with regards to acute discomfort, persistent soreness, palliative care and the administration of procedural discomfort. The facts base, evaluate suggestions, pain-relieving interventions, and assistance for top perform in either health facility and neighborhood settings are coated all through, making this identify a fantastic source for all nurses and healthcare execs operating with teenagers.
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Extra resources for Managing Pain in Children: A Clinical Guide for Nurses and Healthcare Professionals
2008) Temperament and pain response: A review of the literature. Pain Management Nursing 9(1), 2–9. Psychological Factors Fear Fear has a huge impact on children’s perception of pain. The International Association for the Study of Pain (1979) definition of pain, provided in Chapter 1, describes pain as both a sensory and an emotional experience. Fear and distress are common negative emotions experienced by children in pain. The greater the level of fear, the more likely a child is to feel pain and distress.
Reduced inhibition in the spinal cord (meaning mechanisms that close the gate are not as effective). There is a good deal of interest in determining the chemical mediators of chronic pain as this may prove useful in developing analgesics to prevent central sensitisation. Glutamate and its N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors appear to be key players; however, other chemicals such as bradykinin are also involved (Latremoliere and Woolf 2009). Central sensitisation in chronic pain Central sensitisation often features in acute pain experiences, most of which do not progress to chronic pain (Woolf 2011).
Biological Factors Age The effect of a child’s age on their perception of pain has been examined in several studies. Children recognise at an early age that pain is unpleasant (McGrath and Hillier 2003). Their understanding and descriptions of pain depend on their age and also on their level of cognitive development and previous experiences of pain (McGrath and Hillier 2003). Several studies have examined children’s experiences of procedural pain, which have demonstrated age-related differences in the pain intensity they report (Goodenough et al.