By Harvey Lodish, Arnold Berk, Paul Matsudaira, Chris A. Kaiser, Monty Krieger, Matthew P. Scott, Lawrence Zipursky, James Darnell
Molecular cellphone Biology sticks out from its friends during this direction in that it presents a transparent advent to the recommendations and experiments of scientists prior and current, not only an “encyclopedia” of information. This experimental emphasis, including a superior pedagogical framework within the chapters, offers the clearest, so much state of the art textual content on hand.
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The higher the affinity of two molecules for each other, the better the molecular “fit” between them, the more noncovalent interactions can form, and the tighter they can bind together. An important quantitative measure of affinity is the binding dissociation constant Kd, described later. As we discuss in Chapter 3, nearly all the chemical reactions that occur in cells also depend on the binding properties of enzymes. These proteins not only speed up reactions but also do so with a high degree of specificity, a reflection of their ability to bind tightly to only one or a few related molecules.
The tetrahedral orientation of bonds formed by an asymmetric carbon atom can be arranged in three-dimensional space in two different ways, producing molecules that are mirror images of each other, a property called chirality. 5° H C H C H H H H (b) Formaldehyde O H C O H H C ~120° H Chemical structure Ball-and-stick model Space-filling model ▲ FIGURE 2-2 Geometry of bonds when carbon is covalently linked to four or three other atoms. (a) If a carbon atom forms four single bonds, as in methane (CH4), the bonded atoms (all H in this case) are oriented in space in the form of a tetrahedron.
Shown are space-filling models and chemical structures of the ionized form of palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid with 16 C atoms, and oleic acid, an unsaturated one with If the acyl groups are long enough, these molecules are insoluble in water even though they contain three polar ester bonds. Fatty acyl groups also form the hydrophobic portion of phospholipids, which we discuss next. Phospholipids Associate Noncovalently to Form the Basic Bilayer Structure of Biomembranes Biomembranes are large flexible sheets that serve as the boundaries of cells and their intracellular organelles and form the outer surfaces of some viruses.