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14, which is a stereoview of an electron density surface map of the lowest energy conformation of 37b. Manual rotation of the triptycene in models of 37 forces the helicene further and further out of planarity until the energy maximum is reached. That rotation is accomplished much more easily with a clockwise Fig. 12. A simple mechanical ratchet: a a ratchet wheel; b a pawl; c a spring that holds the pawl against the wheel Rotary Motion in Single-Molecule Machines 35 Fig. 13. Proposed molecular ratchets Fig.
Truncated version of Fig. 18 Rotary Motion in Single-Molecule Machines 41 7 Molecular Rotary Motor The design of a molecular system that functions as a motor has been one of the ultimate goals in our research group. After the earlier work on the design and synthesis of the molecular brake and ``ratchet'' devices, we conceived of a way to prepare a rotary molecular motor [46, 47]. The motor retains the components of the molecular ``ratchet'', but incorporates additional functionality. The energy to produce unidirectional rotation will in this case be obtained from phosgene, an energy-rich molecule.
Sestelo Fig. 23. 1H NMR data (monitoring peaks for bridgehead protons) demonstrating the formation of 47a to 51 and the conversion of 51 to 52 over time. Structural assignments were independently con®rmed by ReactIR technology  carbamate 52 via ``pre-barrier'' carbamate 51 (Fig. 23). Given the cleavage of 52 to 47b mentioned above, the unidirectional rotation of 47a to 47b had been achieved and a prototype of a molecular motor was in hand! The phosgene-promoted conversion of 47a to 47b constitutes the proof of principle of the ®rst rationally designed, chemically powered molecular motor.