Morphomechanics of Development by Lev V. Beloussov, Andrei Lipchinsky

By Lev V. Beloussov, Andrei Lipchinsky

This e-book outlines a unified concept of embryonic improvement, assuming morphogenesis to be a multi-level method together with self-organizing steps whereas additionally obeying common legislation. it truly is proven how molecular mechanisms generate mechanical forces, which in the end result in morphological changes.

Questions similar to how stress-mediated suggestions acts on the mobile and supra-cellular degrees and the way government and regulatory mechanisms are jointly based are addressed, whereas features of collective telephone habit and the morphogenesis of crops also are mentioned. The morphomechanical process hired within the ebook is predicated at the basic rules of self-organization concept.

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This definition captures the very essence of self-organization and is more precise than qualifying it as emergence of order out of fluctuations: the matter is that the notion of “order” itself requires further explication. From thermodynamic point of view, autowaves belong to so-called dissipative structures, maintained only under a continuous flow of reagents and energy. 30 1 From Strict Determinism to Self-organization Meanwhile, dissipative structures can well be stationary. Such structures were firstly observed by a French physicist Benard in thin layers of a viscous liquid heated from below: These are so-called Benard cells separated from each other by coherent upward-directed convection flows of the liquid.

2012) performed on fresh water hydra embryos. By studying the size distribution of gene ks1 expression spots, the authors found that it is close to scale-free patterns just at the time of determination of the main body axis. It would be of a great interest to know whether scale-free dynamics is a universal property of developing systems during their transition to a determined state. 6 Spatial Unfolding of Self-organized Regimes Although nothing in principle forbids to unfold the parameters of the above models not only in time, but also in space, such a possibility is rarely used: To do this would be to consider the space a priori heterogeneous, which contradicts the main SOT demands.

Next, for enough rapid relaxation to specific stable states, the system should possess a restricted number of selected degrees of freedom. The physical mechanisms associated with these tendencies will be discussed in the next chapter. At the moment let us look how these conditions are fulfilled in the abovedescribed shape-forming systems. First, all of them are nonlinear; the nonlinearity of the laterally compressed beams is expressed by Eq. 1). Our next question will be what are the pathways toward metastable states, permitting to avoid thermodynamic averaging?

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