By Siegfried Mense, Robert D. Gerwin
The spouse quantity to Muscle ache: knowing the Mechanisms, this article shifts the emphasis from techniques to sensible suggestion. It allows the analysis and administration of the customarily enigmatic signs of continual muscle soreness and comprises the mixed services of leaders within the box who've contributed state-of-the-art fabric at the significant syndromes. As a suite, this quantity and its accomplice are crucial analyzing for practitioners treating acute and protracted discomfort stipulations related to muscle tissues.
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Additional info for Muscle Pain: Diagnosis and Treatment
Arm and hand pain can originate in neck or shoulder muscles (Fig. 3). Thus, the clinician must be aware of referred pain patterns and be familiar with the muscles that can cause pain to be felt in a certain distribution of the body. Referred pain is a characteristic of spread of nociceptive activation in the central nervous system, specifically in the spinal cord (see Sect. 2). 2 Additional Trigger Point Characteristics The trigger point has other characteristics in addition to the taut band and pain.
Gerwin is likely to be involved in the modulation of pain affect, according to the results of these studies. The mechanisms of central sensitization and expansion of dorsal horn reference zones in acute muscle pain have been extensively studied by Mense and his colleagues (Mense 2003). Central sensitization occurs in animal studies with chemically and mechanically induced muscle pain. However, studies in rats do not show a difference in the numbers of neurons in the dorsal horn associated with trigger spots compared to controls (Kuan et al.
Severing the peripheral nerve completely abolishes the local twitch response, whereas transecting the spinal cord does not abolish the twitch response 2 Myofascial Pain Syndrome 23 Fig. 3 Trigger points in the medial and anterior scalene muscles refer pain to the anterior chest, the upper back in the distribution of the dorsal scapular nerve, and into the ipsilateral arm. The referral pattern is segmental, largely in the distribution of the fifth cervical nerve root dermatome and myotome, with spillover into the adjacent root distributions.