By G. Fierro (auth.), Prof. Riccardo Casale, Prof. Claudio Margottini (eds.)Natural mess ups are a transparent instance of individuals residing in clash with the surroundings. failures reason human, social and environmental losses and, occasionally, even threaten geopolitical balance, as in lots of much less built nations. also they are an issue of worldwide problem, even if harm is neighborhood: the mechanisms are usually depending on international meteoro-climatic stream. Losses often have an effect on numerous international locations, as might be noticeable within the floods in important Europe in 2002. it's seen that there's a transparent desire for a brand new method, able to incorporating the prevention of traditional failures, when mitigating suggestions in the cycle of sustainable improvement. There aren't any thematic disciplines or political obstacles limitating tasks: the combination of knowledge prone, facts users/information services and data clients, in a world and holistic demeanour, is the specified end result of the recent frontier. This booklet falls into this new classification: multidisciplinary interventions and socio-economic element of perspectives are the fundamental inputs for a altering technological know-how, enforcing sustainable improvement for the good thing about electorate and society. it's created from experiences and investigations which clarify common approaches and modelling, in addition to assessing dangers and dangers and is rounded of with feedback for sustainable improvement. therefore reflecting the simplest result of examine in this subject funded through the ecu Commission.
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2 100 O t N D F Month M A M Fig. 5. Relationship between rock block slide triggering and precipitation amount in Piedmont (Ayala et al. 1996) 400 TTTrTTrTl1 TrTnlnTnTnr:s::::S::~~~51 I ~ Landslide events I II nresnolO: >200 mm/mon ~~~~$R~~~~~~~~~~oo~~~~~~~~~;~~~~ ------------------------------Year ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Fig. 6. Monthly and bimonthly rainfall heights measured before landslide reactivation (expressed by numbers) in the area of Pieria, Greece Landslide mechanism is governed by infiltrating water that circulates through the relatively permeable, weathered sandstone, the partially broken marly silts and through the strata interfaces.
100- 400 • 400- 700 • 700-1100 • 1100-1300 1300-1600 • 1600-1900 • 1900-2200 • 2200-2500 0 >2500 • Bologna b • Posina catchment • Alpone catchment O Calibration area Raingauges used for mfb estimation a Raingauges used for validation Fig. 1. 2 Mean-Field Bias As stated above, adjustment for mean-field bias is designed to correct for those sources of error that are not localised or range-dependent and are likely to produce a uniform multiplicative bias (mean field bias) in the radar rainfall estimates.
4. Seasonal monthly distribution of rock falls vs. long-time seasonal distribution of selected cli- matic events (1880-1987); a monthly distribution of rock falls; b air temperature: 1: monthly averages, annual average; c annual number of frosty (J) and icy (4) days; d precipitat ion in different areas of the highland 2: or shortly after periods of intense rainfall often in combinat ion with snowmelt; At any rate the intens it ies of rain/snow melt are usually quite normal with recurrence intervals of only a few years.