Novartis Foundation Symposium 224 - Rhodopsins and

Brings jointly key new result of interdisciplinary collaborations between quite a few examine fields on rhodopsin together with the photoreceptive mechanism of rhodopsins, the molecular mechanism of the visible transduction approach, visible methods within the retina and different transduction approaches within the retina and brain.

The constructions of the rhodopsin molecule are studied within the fields of protein chemistry, molecular biology, natural chemistry and structural biology; the extremely quick reactions of the retinal protein are studied in physics, biophysics, actual chemistry, natural chemistry and photobiology; the phototransduction in retinal proteins and visible cells are studied in biophysics, biochemistry, biophysical chemistry and photobiology; and the localization within the tissues is studied in anatomy and histochemistry. the range of visible platforms in quite a few animals is studied in zoology and comparative biochemistry.

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Bock, Jamie A. Goode Copyright 0 1999 by Novartis Foundation The ecology of visual pigments James K. Bowmaker Department of Visual Science, Itistitute of Ophthalmology, Universit_y College London, Bath Street, London ECI V 9 E L , U K Abstract. The visual systems of vertebrates have adapted to function in photic environments ranging from the broad spectrum of full sunlight to almost total darkness, including the restricted spectral ranges found in different coloured aquatic environments. Such adaptations are immediately obvious at the level of retinal photoreceptors.

Nature 372:9497 Provencio I, Loew ER, Foster RG 1992 Vitamin A2-based visual pigments in fully terrestrial vertebrates. Vision Res 32:2201- 2208 Soni BG, Foster RG 1997 A novel and ancient vertebrate opsin. FBBS Lett 406:279--283 Soni BG, Philp A, Foster RG, ICnox BE 1998 Novel retinal photoreceptors. Nature 394:27-28 Sun H, Gilbert DJ, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Nathans J 1997 Peropsin, a novel visual pigment-like protein located in the apical microvilli of the retinal pigment epithelium. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 94:989%9898 ~ Novartif Foundation Symposium Edited by Ikuo Takeuchi, GregoIy R.

Water acts as a monochromator, so that with increasing depth (or visual path length), the spectral range of the ambient light is restricted, rapidly at long ECOLOGY OF VISUAL PIGMENTS 23 wavelengths, but more gradually at short wavelengths. At depth, not only is the intensity of the down-welling daylight greatly attenuated, but in clear oceanic water the light is restricted to a narrow spectral band centred around 470 nm. In more turbid coastal waters where there will be significant amounts of suspended particles and dissolved organic material (Gelbstoffe), light will be attenuated more rapidly with a greater reduction in the transmission of short wavelengths and the maximum transmission shifted towards longer wavelengths (500-550 nm).

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