Novel Insights into Adipose Cell Functions by Karine Clément (auth.), Yves Christen, Karine Clément, Bruce

By Karine Clément (auth.), Yves Christen, Karine Clément, Bruce M. Spiegelman (eds.)

Obesity is taken into account as best in danger situation on the planet and it truly is vital to spot the physiopathological factors excited about adipose tissue expansion and similar metabolic and cardiovascular overall healthiness issues. Environmental, behavioural, genetic, epigenetic and a number of organic elements engage to reason weight problems. during this context adipose tissue depots were less than concentration within the final a long time and pivotal techniques have emerged from the stories in their complicated biology. whereas the white adipose tissue (WAT) is the most strength repository within the physique (mobilizing fatty acids in accordance with physique wishes) due to white adipocyte homes, WAT can be a multicellular organ speaking with different physique organs (brain, muscle tissue, liver, pancreas, center, vessels, etc…) through complicated networks of endocrine indications. the invention of leptin in 1994 resulted in realize WAT as a grasp organ on the crossroad of a myriad of physiological interactions to manage foodstuff consumption, power stability, glucose and lipid metabolism, immunity and replica. The phenotype, quantity and biology of every WAT part are profoundly altered in human weight problems. Adipose plasticity additionally money owed for the extreme skill of adipose precursors to tell apart into useful cardiomyocytes, osteoblasts, haematopoietic and neural cells, a handy estate for regenerative drugs. eventually, whereas firstly inspiration to exert a negligible function in people, the invention of brown adipose tissue in adults stimulates a singular curiosity for this tissue with excessive ability to oxidize fatty acids

Show description

Read or Download Novel Insights into Adipose Cell Functions PDF

Similar nonfiction_9 books

Fungal Associations

This re-creation of Fungal institutions makes a speciality of mycorrhizas, lichens and fungal-bacterial symbioses. it's been thoroughly revised, up-to-date and extended. popular specialists current thorough reports and talk about the newest findings on molecular interactions among fungi and vegetation or micro organism that bring about morphological adjustments and novel houses within the symbionts.

Social Bioarchaeology

Illustrates new methodological instructions in reading human social and organic edition bargains a wide range of analysis on earlier populations world wide Explains the vital beneficial properties of bioarchaeological study via key researchers and proven specialists around the globe content material: bankruptcy 1 construction a Social Bioarchaeology (pages 1–11): Sabrina C.

HIV Protocols

In HIV Protocols, Nelson Michael and Jerome Kim have equipped a set of state-of-the-art options crucial for learning the molecular biology, virology, and immunology of the HIV virus. The equipment conceal a extensive diversity of study pursuits, together with quantitation of viral genomes, HIV promoter functionality, B-cell epitope mapping, viral coreceptor utilization, and measurements of T-cell functionality.

Interleukin Protocols

Interleukins, a relatives of proteins that control immunity and irritation through the physique, also are concerned about autoimmune illness (rheumatoid arthritis, a number of sclerosis, and asthma); are implicated in such different stipulations as melanoma, myocardial infarction, and melancholy; and feature price within the prognosis and analysis of many illnesses.

Additional info for Novel Insights into Adipose Cell Functions

Example text

Once phosphorylated by PKA, HSL is translocated to the surface of small lipid storage droplets. The phosphorylation of perilipins seems to be necessary for the dispersal of the lipid droplets leading to full lipolytic stimulation (Marcinkiewicz et al. 2006; Miyoshi et al. 2008; Miyoshi et al. 2006). Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP, respectively) are also potent regulators of HSL activity in humans. They act through the binding and subsequent activation of the natriuretic peptide receptor-A, present in adipocyte plasma membrane and possessing guanylyl cyclase activity.

In situations of chronic activation of white fat cells by catecholamines, high intracellular cAMP levels could lead to a stimulation of lipolysis and an induction of PGC-1 a, PPAR a, and GyK expression, thus contributing to the TG/FFA cycle. The TG/FFA cycle comprises anabolic and catabolic phases. During the synthesis of TG, the accumulating FA-CoA is partitioned into the formation of complex lipids through the condensation with Gly3P by GPAT to form lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). LPA is then converted by AGPAT to phosphatidic acid (PA) and a phosphatase (PAP) can eventually convert it into DGs.

References Aarsland A, Chinkes D, Wolfe RR (1997) Hepatic and whole-body fat synthesis in humans during carbohydrate overfeeding. Am J Clin Nutr 65:1774–1782 Abumrad N, Coburn C, Ibrahimi A (1999) Membrane proteins implicated in long-chain fatty acid uptake by mammalian cells: CD36, FATP and FABPm. Biochim Biophys Acta 1441:4–13 Arner P (1997). Regional adipocity in man. J Endocrinol 155:191–192 Au-Yong IT, Thorn N, Ganatra R, Perkins AC, Symonds ME (2009) Brown adipose tissue and seasonal variation in humans.

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.53 of 5 – based on 8 votes